[o.dy(s).sěu̯s]), also known past the Latin variant
Ulixes), is a legendary Greek rex of Ithaca and the hero of Homer’s epic poem the
Odyssey. Odysseus as well plays a key role in Homer’s
and other works in that same epic cycle.
Son of Laërtes and Anticlea, husband of Penelope, and begetter of Telemachus and Acusilaus,
Odysseus is renowned for his intellectual luminescence, guile, and versatility (polytropos), and is thus known past the epithet Odysseus the Cunning (Greek:
lit. “cunning intelligence”[four]). He is nigh famous for his
nostos, or “homecoming”, which took him ten eventful years after the decade-long Trojan War.
Name, etymology, and epithets
is used starting in the epic period and through the classical period, just diverse other forms are likewise plant. In vase inscriptions, nosotros find the variants
). The grade
) is attested in an early source in Magna Graecia (Ibycus, according to Diomedes Grammaticus), while the Greek grammarian Aelius Herodianus has
In Latin, he was known as
or (considered less correct)
. Some have supposed that “at that place may originally have been ii carve up figures, one called something like Odysseus, the other something like Ulixes, who were combined into ane complex personality.”
However, the alter between
is common also in some Indo-European and Greek names,
and the Latin form is supposed to be derived from the Etruscan
(see below), which possibly accounts for some of the phonetic innovations.
The etymology of the name is unknown. Ancient authors linked the name to the Greek verbs
) “to be wroth against, to hate”,
) “to lament, bewail”,
or even to
) “to perish, to be lost”.
Homer relates it to diverse forms of this verb in references and puns. In Book 19 of the
Odyssey, where Odysseus’ early childhood is recounted, Euryclea asks the boy’due south grandfather Autolycus to proper noun him. Euryclea seems to suggest a name similar
Polyaretos, “for he has
prayed for” (πολυάρητος) but Autolycus “manifestly in a sardonic mood” decided to give the kid another name commemorative of “his ain experience in life”:
“Since I have been angered (ὀδυσσάμενος
odyssamenos) with many, both men and women, let the proper name of the child be Odysseus”.
Odysseus ofttimes receives the patronymic epithet
), “son of Laërtes”.
It has also been suggested that the name is of non-Greek origin, possibly not even Indo-European, with an unknown etymology.
Robert Southward. P. Beekes has suggested a Pre-Greek origin.[xvi]
In Etruscan religion the name (and stories) of Odysseus were adopted under the name
(Uθuze), which has been interpreted every bit a parallel borrowing from a preceding Minoan course of the proper name (possibly
*Oduze, pronounced /’ot͡θut͡se/); this theory is supposed to explicate also the insecurity of the phonologies (d
l), since the affricate /t͡θ/, unknown to the Greek of that time, gave ascent to dissimilar counterparts (i. eastward.
Homer uses several epithets used to describe Odysseus, starting with the opening, where he is described as “the man of many devices” (in the 1919 Murray translation). The Greek give-and-take used is πολύτροπον, literally the human of many turns, and other translators take suggested alternating English translations, including “man of twists and turns” (Fagles 1996) and “a complicated human being” (Wilson 2018).
In the account of Dares the Phrygian, Odysseus was illustrated every bit “. . .tough, crafty, cheerful, of medium height, eloquent, and wise.”[eighteen]
Relatively little is given of Odysseus’ fictional background other than that according to Pseudo-Apollodorus, his paternal grandfather or step-grandfather is Arcesius, son of Cephalus and grandson of Aeolus, while his maternal grandfather is the thief Autolycus, son of Hermes
and Chione. Hence, Odysseus was the corking-grandson of the Olympian god Hermes.
Co-ordinate to the
Odyssey, his begetter is Laertes[twenty]
and his mother Anticlea, although there was a non-Homeric tradition
that Sisyphus was his true father.
The rumour went that Laërtes bought Odysseus from the conniving king.
Odysseus is said to have a younger sister, Ctimene, who went to Same to be married and is mentioned by the swineherd Eumaeus, whom she grew up aslope, in book fifteen of the
Before the Trojan War
The majority of sources for Odysseus’ supposed pre-war exploits—principally the mythographers Pseudo-Apollodorus and Hyginus—postdate Homer by many centuries. Two stories in particular are well known:
When Helen of Troy is abducted, Menelaus calls upon the other suitors to honour their oaths and help him to recollect her, an attempt that leads to the Trojan War. Odysseus tries to avoid it by feigning lunacy, as an oracle had prophesied a long-delayed return dwelling for him if he went. He hooks a donkey and an ox to his plow (equally they have different step lengths, hindering the efficiency of the plow) and (some modern sources add) starts sowing his fields with salt. Palamedes, at the behest of Menelaus’ blood brother Agamemnon, seeks to disprove Odysseus’ madness and places Telemachus, Odysseus’ infant son, in front of the plow. Odysseus veers the plow abroad from his son, thus exposing his stratagem.
Odysseus holds a grudge against Palamedes during the state of war for dragging him abroad from his home.
Odysseus and other envoys of Agamemnon travel to Scyros to recruit Achilles because of a prophecy that Troy could not be taken without him. By nigh accounts, Thetis, Achilles’ mother, disguises the youth every bit a woman to hide him from the recruiters because an oracle had predicted that Achilles would either live a long uneventful life or achieve everlasting celebrity while dying immature. Odysseus cleverly discovers which among the women before him is Achilles when the youth is the only ane of them to show interest in examining the weapons hidden among an array of beautification gifts for the daughters of their host. Odysseus arranges farther for the sounding of a boxing horn, which prompts Achilles to clutch a weapon and show his trained disposition. With his disguise foiled, he is exposed and joins Agamemnon’s call to arms among the Hellenes.
During the Trojan War
Odysseus is represented equally one of the nigh influential Greek champions during the Trojan War in Homer’s fictional account. Along with Nestor and Idomeneus he is one of the most trusted counsellors and advisors. He e’er champions the Achaean cause, especially when others question Agamemnon’s control, equally in 1 instance when Thersites speaks confronting him. When Agamemnon, to test the morale of the Achaeans, announces his intentions to depart Troy, Odysseus restores social club to the Greek military camp.
Afterwards, later many of the heroes leave the battlefield due to injuries (including Odysseus and Agamemnon), Odysseus once again persuades Agamemnon non to withdraw. Along with 2 other envoys, he is chosen in the failed embassy to effort to persuade Achilles to return to combat.
When Hector proposes a unmarried combat duel, Odysseus is one of the Danaans who reluctantly volunteered to boxing him. Telamonian Ajax (“The Greater”), however, is the volunteer who eventually fights Hector.
Odysseus aids Diomedes during the night operations to kill Rhesus, because information technology had been foretold that if his horses drank from the Scamander River, Troy could not be taken.
Subsequently Patroclus is slain, it is Odysseus who counsels Achilles to let the Achaean men swallow and balance rather than follow his rage-driven want to get back on the offensive—and kill Trojans—immediately. Eventually (and reluctantly), he consents.
During the funeral games for Patroclus, Odysseus becomes involved in a wrestling match with Ajax “The Greater” and foot race with Ajax “The Lesser,” son of Oileus and Nestor’due south son Antilochus. He draws the wrestling match, and with the help of the goddess Athena, he wins the race.
Odysseus has traditionally been viewed as Achilles’ antithesis in the
while Achilles’ anger is all-consuming and of a self-destructive nature, Odysseus is often viewed as a man of the hateful, a voice of reason, renowned for his self-restraint and diplomatic skills. He is also in some respects antithetical to Telamonian Ajax (Shakespeare’southward “beef-witted” Ajax): while the latter has just brawn to recommend him, Odysseus is non only ingenious (every bit evidenced by his idea for the Trojan Equus caballus), just an eloquent speaker, a skill perhaps best demonstrated in the embassy to Achilles in book ix of the
Iliad. The two are not only foils in the abstract but often opposed in practice since they have many duels and run-ins.
Other stories from the Trojan State of war
Since a prophecy suggested that the Trojan War would not exist won without Achilles, Odysseus and several other Achaean leaders are described in the
equally having gone to Skyros to find him. Odysseus discovered Achilles by offering gifts, adornments and musical instruments too as weapons, to the king’s daughters, and then having his companions imitate the noises of an enemy’s assail on the island (most notably, making a blast of a trumpet heard), which prompted Achilles to reveal himself by picking a weapon to fight dorsum, and together they departed for the Trojan War.
The story of the death of Palamedes has many versions. According to some, Odysseus never forgives Palamedes for unmasking his feigned madness and plays a part in his downfall. 1 tradition says Odysseus convinces a Trojan convict to write a letter pretending to be from Palamedes. A sum of gold is mentioned to have been sent as a advantage for Palamedes’ treachery. Odysseus so kills the prisoner and hides the gold in Palamedes’ tent. He ensures that the letter is institute and caused past Agamemnon, and also gives hints directing the Argives to the gilt. This is prove plenty for the Greeks, and they have Palamedes stoned to expiry. Other sources say that Odysseus and Diomedes catalyst Palamedes into descending a well with the prospect of treasure beingness at the bottom. When Palamedes reaches the bottom, the ii proceed to bury him with stones, killing him.
When Achilles is slain in boxing past Paris, it is Odysseus and Ajax who retrieve the fallen warrior’s trunk and armour in the thick of heavy fighting. During the funeral games for Achilles, Odysseus competes again with Ajax. Thetis says that the arms of Achilles will go to the bravest of the Greeks, but merely these two warriors dare lay claim to that title. The two Argives became embroiled in a heavy dispute about 1 another’s claim to receive the advantage. The Greeks dither out of fear in deciding a winner, because they did not want to insult one and have him abandon the war try. Nestor suggests that they allow the convict Trojans make up one’s mind the winner.
The accounts of the Odyssey disagree, suggesting that the Greeks themselves hold a hush-hush vote.
In any case, Odysseus is the winner. Enraged and humiliated, Ajax is driven mad by Athena. When he returns to his senses, in shame at how he has slaughtered livestock in his madness, Ajax kills himself past the sword that Hector had given him later on their duel.
Together with Diomedes, Odysseus fetches Achilles’ son, Pyrrhus, to come to the assist of the Achaeans, because an oracle had stated that Troy could not exist taken without him. A swell warrior, Pyrrhus is also called Neoptolemus (Greek for “new warrior”). Upon the success of the mission, Odysseus gives Achilles’ armour to him.
Information technology is learned that the war can not be won without the poisonous arrows of Heracles, which are owned by the abandoned Philoctetes. Odysseus and Diomedes (or, according to some accounts, Odysseus and Neoptolemus) go out to retrieve them. Upon their arrival, Philoctetes (still suffering from the wound) is seen still to be enraged at the Danaans, especially at Odysseus, for abandoning him. Although his first instinct is to shoot Odysseus, his anger is eventually diffused by Odysseus’ persuasive powers and the influence of the gods. Odysseus returns to the Argive camp with Philoctetes and his arrows.
Perhaps Odysseus’ most famous contribution to the Greek war attempt is devising the strategem of the Trojan Equus caballus, which allows the Greek army to sneak into Troy under embrace of darkness. It is built by Epeius and filled with Greek warriors, led by Odysseus.
Odysseus and Diomedes steal the Palladium that lay inside Troy’s walls, for the Greeks were told they could not sack the urban center without it. Some late Roman sources signal that Odysseus schemed to kill his partner on the way dorsum, but Diomedes thwarts this attempt.
“Brutal, deceitful Ulixes” of the Romans
portray Odysseus every bit a culture hero, but the Romans, who believed themselves the heirs of Prince Aeneas of Troy, considered him a villainous falsifier. In Virgil’due south
Aeneid, written between 29 and nineteen BC, he is constantly referred to equally “cruel Odysseus” (Latin
dirus Ulixes) or “deceitful Odysseus” (pellacis,
fandi fictor). Turnus, in
Aeneid, book 9, reproaches the Trojan Ascanius with images of rugged, forthright Latin virtues, declaring (in John Dryden’s translation), “You shall non find the sons of Atreus here, nor need the frauds of sly Ulysses fright.” While the Greeks admired his cunning and deceit, these qualities did not recommend themselves to the Romans, who possessed a rigid sense of honour. In Euripides’ tragedy
Iphigenia at Aulis, having convinced Agamemnon to consent to the sacrifice of his daughter, Iphigenia, to appease the goddess Artemis, Odysseus facilitates the immolation by telling Iphigenia’south mother, Clytemnestra, that the girl is to be wed to Achilles. Odysseus’ attempts to avoid his sacred adjuration to defend Menelaus and Helen offended Roman notions of duty, and the many stratagems and tricks that he employed to go his way offended Roman notions of honour.
Journey home to Ithaca
Odysseus is probably best known every bit the eponymous hero of the
Odyssey. This epic describes his travails, which lasted for x years, as he tries to return home afterward the Trojan War and reassert his place every bit rightful king of Ithaca.
On the way dwelling from Troy, afterward a raid on Ismarus in the country of the Cicones, he and his twelve ships are driven off form by storms. They visit the lethargic Lotus-Eaters and are captured by the Cyclops Polyphemus while visiting his island. Afterwards Polyphemus eats several of his men, Polyphemus and Odysseus have a discussion and Odysseus tells Polyphemus his name is “Nobody”. Odysseus takes a barrel of wine, and the Cyclops drinks it, falling comatose. Odysseus and his men take a wooden stake, ignite it with the remaining wine, and blind him. While they escape, Polyphemus cries in hurting, and the other Cyclopes inquire him what is wrong. Polyphemus cries, “Nobody has blinded me!” and the other Cyclopes recollect he has gone mad. Odysseus and his crew escape, but Odysseus rashly reveals his real name, and Polyphemus prays to Poseidon, his father, to take revenge. They stay with Aeolus, the master of the winds, who gives Odysseus a leather handbag containing all the winds, except the due west wind, a gift that should have ensured a safe return home. Nevertheless, the sailors foolishly open the purse while Odysseus sleeps, thinking that it contains aureate. All of the winds fly out, and the resulting storm drives the ships dorsum the way they had come, only every bit Ithaca comes into sight.
Afterwards pleading in vain with Aeolus to help them again, they re-embark and meet the cannibalistic Laestrygonians. Odysseus’ send is the just one to escape. He sails on and visits the witch-goddess Circe. She turns half of his men into swine later on feeding them cheese and wine. Hermes warns Odysseus nearly Circe and gives him a drug called moly, which resists Circe’southward magic. Circe, being attracted to Odysseus’ resistance, falls in love with him and releases his men. Odysseus and his coiffure remain with her on the island for one yr, while they feast and drink. Finally, Odysseus’ men convince him to leave for Ithaca.
Guided by Circe’s instructions, Odysseus and his crew cross the ocean and reach a harbor at the western edge of the globe, where Odysseus sacrifices to the dead and summons the spirit of the old prophet Tiresias for advice. Side by side Odysseus meets the spirit of his ain mother, who had died of grief during his long absence. From her, he learns for the get-go fourth dimension news of his own household, threatened by the greed of Penelope’s suitors. Odysseus also talks to his fallen war comrades and the mortal shade of Heracles.
Odysseus and his men return to Circe’s island, and she advises them on the remaining stages of the journeying. They skirt the country of the Sirens, laissez passer between the half-dozen-headed monster Scylla and the whirlpool Charybdis, where they row directly between the two. However, Scylla drags the boat towards her by grabbing the oars and eats six men.
They land on the isle of Thrinacia. There, Odysseus’ men ignore the warnings of Tiresias and Circe and hunt downwardly the sacred cattle of the sun god Helios. Helios tells Zeus what happened and demands Odysseus’ men be punished or else he will take the sun and smoothen it in the Underworld. Zeus fulfills Helios’ demands past causing a shipwreck during a thunderstorm in which all only Odysseus drown. He washes ashore on the island of Ogygia, where Calypso compels him to remain as her lover for vii years. He finally escapes when Hermes tells Calypso to release Odysseus.
Odysseus is shipwrecked and befriended by the Phaeacians. Subsequently he tells them his story, the Phaeacians, led by King Alcinous, hold to assist Odysseus get home. They evangelize him at nighttime, while he is fast asleep, to a hidden harbor on Ithaca. He finds his way to the hut of one of his own onetime slaves, the swineherd Eumaeus, and also meets upwards with Telemachus returning from Sparta. Athena disguises Odysseus as a wandering beggar to acquire how things stand up in his household.
When the bearded Odysseus returns later xx years, he is recognized only by his faithful domestic dog, Argos. Penelope announces in her long interview with the disguised hero that whoever can string Odysseus’ rigid bow and shoot an arrow through twelve axe shafts may have her hand. Co-ordinate to Bernard Knox, “For the plot of the
Odyssey, of class, her decision is the turning signal, the move that makes possible the long-predicted triumph of the returning hero”.
Odysseus’ identity is discovered by the housekeeper, Eurycleia, as she is washing his anxiety and discovers an old scar Odysseus received during a boar chase. Odysseus swears her to secrecy, threatening to kill her if she tells anyone.
When the contest of the bow begins, none of the suitors are able to string the bow. After all the suitors accept given upwards, the bearded Odysseus asks to participate. Though the suitors reject at kickoff, Penelope intervenes and allows the “stranger” (the disguised Odysseus) to participate. Odysseus easily strings his bow and wins the contest. Having done so, he proceeds to slaughter the suitors (first with Antinous whom he finds drinking from Odysseus’ loving cup) with aid from Telemachus and two of Odysseus’ servants, Eumaeus the swineherd and Philoetius the cowherd. Odysseus tells the serving women who slept with the suitors to clean up the mess of corpses and then has those women hanged in terror. He tells Telemachus that he will replenish his stocks by raiding nearby islands. Odysseus has at present revealed himself in all his celebrity (with a little makeover by Athena); yet Penelope cannot believe that her married man has actually returned—she fears that information technology is perhaps some god in disguise, as in the story of Alcmene (mother of Heracles)—and tests him past ordering her retainer Euryclea to move the bed in their wedding-chamber. Odysseus protests that this cannot be done since he fabricated the bed himself and knows that ane of its legs is a living olive tree. Penelope finally accepts that he truly is her husband, a moment that highlights their
The next day Odysseus and Telemachus visit the country farm of his onetime begetter Laërtes. The citizens of Ithaca follow Odysseus on the road, planning to avenge the killing of the Suitors, their sons. The goddess Athena intervenes and persuades both sides to brand peace.
Odysseus is one of the most recurrent characters in Western civilization.
According to some late sources, most of them purely genealogical, Odysseus had many other children besides Telemachus. Most such genealogies aimed to link Odysseus with the foundation of many Italic cities. The most famous being:
- with Penelope: Poliporthes (born after Odysseus’ render from Troy)
- with Circe: Telegonus, Ardeas, Latinus, as well Ausonus and Casiphone.
Xenagoras writes that Odysseus with Circe had three sons, Romos (Aboriginal Greek:
Ῥώμος), Anteias (Ancient Greek:
Ἀντείας) and Ardeias (Ancient Greek:
Ἀρδείας), who built 3 cities and called them after their own names. The urban center that Romos founded was Rome.
- with Calypso: Nausithous, Nausinous
- with Callidice: Polypoetes
- with Euippe: Euryalus
- with daughter of Thoas: Leontophonus
He figures in the end of the story of King Telephus of Mysia.
The supposed last verse form in the Epic Bicycle is chosen the
and is thought to tell the story of Odysseus’ final voyage, and of his death at the easily of Telegonus, his son with Circe. The poem, like the others of the cycle, is “lost” in that no authentic version has been discovered.
In 5th century BC Athens, tales of the Trojan State of war were popular subjects for tragedies. Odysseus figures centrally or indirectly in a number of the extant plays by Aeschylus, Sophocles (Ajax,
Philoctetes) and Euripides (Hecuba,
Cyclops) and figured in withal more than that take not survived. In his
Ajax, Sophocles portrays Odysseus every bit a modern vocalisation of reasoning compared to the championship character’south rigid antiquity.
Plato in his dialogue
examines a literary question most whom Homer intended to portray every bit the better man, Achilles or Odysseus.
Pausanias at the
Clarification of Hellenic republic
writes that at Pheneus there was a bronze statue of Poseidon, surnamed Hippios (Ancient Greek:
of horse, which according to the legends was dedicated by Odysseus and besides a sanctuary of Artemis which was called Heurippa (Ancient Greek:
horse finder, and was founded past Odysseus.
According to the legends Odysseus lost his mares and traversed the Hellenic republic in search of them. He establish them on that site in Pheneus.
Pausanias adds that co-ordinate to the people of Pheneus, when Odysseus found his mares he decided to go on horses in the land of Pheneus, simply every bit he reared his cows. The people of Pheneus also pointed out to him writing, purporting to be instructions of Odysseus to those tending his mares.
As Ulysses, he is mentioned regularly in Virgil’south
written between 29 and nineteen BC, and the poem’s hero, Aeneas, rescues i of Ulysses’ coiffure members who was left behind on the island of the Cyclopes. He in turn offers a commencement-person account of some of the same events Homer relates, in which Ulysses appears directly. Virgil’s Ulysses typifies his view of the Greeks: he is cunning merely impious, and ultimately malicious and hedonistic.
Ovid retells parts of Ulysses’ journeys, focusing on his romantic involvements with Circe and Calypso, and recasts him as, in Harold Blossom’s phrase, “1 of the great wandering womanizers”. Ovid as well gives a detailed account of the competition between Ulysses and Ajax for the armour of Achilles.
Greek fable tells of Ulysses as the founder of Lisbon, Portugal, calling it
Ulisseya, during his twenty-twelvemonth errand on the Mediterranean and Atlantic seas. Olisipo was Lisbon’s name in the Roman Empire. This folk etymology is recounted by Strabo based on Asclepiades of Myrleia’s words, by Pomponius Mela, by Gaius Julius Solinus (3rd century Advertising), and volition be resumed by Camões in his epic verse form
(outset printed in 1572).[
Eye Ages and Renaissance
Dante Alighieri, in the Canto XXVI of the
segment of his
(1308–1320), encounters Odysseus (“Ulisse” in Italian) nigh the very bottom of Hell: with Diomedes, he walks wrapped in flame in the eighth band (Counselors of Fraud) of the Eighth Circumvolve (Sins of Malice), as punishment for his schemes and conspiracies that won the Trojan War. In a famous passage, Dante has Odysseus relate a different version of his voyage and decease from the 1 told by Homer. He tells how he gear up out with his men from Circe’southward isle for a journey of exploration to sheet beyond the Pillars of Hercules and into the Western body of water to detect what adventures awaited them. Men, says Ulisse, are not made to live like brutes, simply to follow virtue and noesis.
After travelling west and s for 5 months, they see in the distance a not bad mountain rising from the sea (this is Purgatory, in Dante’south cosmology) before a tempest sinks them. Dante did not have access to the original Greek texts of the Homeric epics, then his knowledge of their subject-thing was based only on information from later sources, chiefly Virgil’s
but besides Ovid; hence the discrepancy between Dante and Homer.
He appears in Shakespeare’s
Troilus and Cressida
(1602), set during the Trojan War.
In her poem
Site of the Castle of Ulysses. (published in 1836), Letitia Elizabeth Landon gives her version of
The Song of the Sirens
with an explanation of its purpose, structure and significant.
Alfred, Lord Tennyson’south poem “Ulysses” (published in 1842) presents an aging king who has seen likewise much of the earth to be happy sitting on a throne idling his days away. Leaving the task of civilizing his people to his son, he gathers together a band of sometime comrades “to sail across the sunset”.
The Weird of the Wanderer
(1912) has the hero Nicholas Crabbe (based on the author) travelling dorsum in time, discovering that he is the reincarnation of Odysseus, marrying Helen, being deified and ending up as one of the three Magi.
James Joyce’southward novel
(outset published 1918–1920) uses modern literary devices to characterize a unmarried solar day in the life of a Dublin businessman named Leopold Flower. Blossom’south day turns out to bear many elaborate parallels to Odysseus’ x years of wandering.
In Virginia Woolf’due south response novel
(1925) the comparable character is Clarissa Dalloway, who also appears in
The Voyage Out
(1915) and several short stories.
The Odyssey: A Modernistic Sequel
(1938), a 33,333-line ballsy poem, begins with Odysseus cleansing his body of the blood of Penelope’s suitors. Odysseus soon leaves Ithaca in search of new adventures. Earlier his expiry he abducts Helen, incites revolutions in Crete and Egypt, communes with God, and meets representatives of such famous historical and literary figures every bit Vladimir Lenin, Don Quixote and Jesus.
Return to Ithaca
(1946) by Eyvind Johnson is a more realistic retelling of the events that adds a deeper psychological report of the characters of Odysseus, Penelope, and Telemachus. Thematically, it uses Odysseus’ backstory and struggle as a metaphor for dealing with the aftermath of war (the novel being written immediately after the end of the Second World War).
In the eleventh chapter of Primo Levi’s 1947 memoir
If This Is a Homo, “The Canto of Ulysses”, the author describes the last voyage of Ulysses as told by Dante in
to a young man-prisoner during forced labour in the Nazi concentration military camp Auschwitz.
Odysseus is the hero of
The Luck of Troy
(1961) by Roger Lancelyn Greenish, whose title refers to the theft of the Palladium.
In 1986, Irish poet Eilean Ni Chuilleanain published “The Second Voyage”, a poem in which she makes utilise of the story of Odysseus.
In Southward. Thou. Stirling’s
Island in the Sea of Time
(1998), start part to his Nantucket series of alternating history novels, Odikweos (“Odysseus” in Mycenaean Greek) is a “historical” effigy who is every bit every bit cunning as his legendary self and is ane of the few Bronze Historic period inhabitants who discerns the time-travellers’ real groundwork. Odikweos first aids William Walker’south rise to power in Achaea and later helps bring Walker down after seeing his homeland turn into a police state.
(2005) by Margaret Atwood retells his story from the point of view of his wife Penelope.
The literary theorist Núria Perpinyà conceived twenty dissimilar interpretations of the
in a 2008 study.
Odysseus is also a character in David Gemmell’s
trilogy (2005–2007), in which he is a good friend and mentor of Helikaon. He is known as the ugly king of Ithaka. His marriage with Penelope was arranged, simply they grew to love each other. He is likewise a famous storyteller, known to exaggerate his stories and heralded as the greatest storyteller of his age. This is used equally a plot device to explain the origins of such myths as those of Circe and the Gorgons. In the series, he is fairly old and an unwilling ally of Agamemnon.
In Madeline Miller’southward
The Song of Achilles
(a retelling of the Trojan War equally well every bit the life of Patroclus and his romance with Achilles), Odysseus is a major character with much the same part he had in Homer’s
Iliad, though it is expanded upon. Miller’due south
tells of Odysseus’s visit to Circe’due south island from Circe’southward point of view, and includes the birth of their son Telegonus, and Odysseus’ inadvertent death when Telegonus travels to Ithaca to see him.
Television receiver and film
The actors who take portrayed Odysseus in characteristic films include Kirk Douglas in the Italian
(1955), John Drew Barrymore in
The Trojan Horse
(1961), Piero Lulli in
The Fury of Achilles
(1962), and Sean Bean in
In Telly miniseries he has been played by Bekim Fehmiu in
(1968), Armand Assante in
(1997), and by Joseph Mawle in
Troy: Fall of a City
is a French-Japanese animated goggle box series (1981) that updates the Greek mythology of Odysseus to the 31st century.
Joel and Ethan Coen’s film
O Brother Where Fine art M?
(2000) is loosely based on the
Odyssey. Still, the Coens have stated that they had never read the epic. George Clooney plays Ulysses Everett McGill, leading a grouping of escapees from a chain gang through an adventure in search of the proceeds of an armoured truck heist. On their voyage, the gang encounter—amidst other characters—a trio of Sirens and a 1-eyed bible salesman. The plot of their 2013 picture
Inside Llewyn Davis
includes elements of the epic, equally the hero, a former seaman, embarks on a torrid journey with a cat named
The British group Cream recorded the vocal “Tales of Dauntless Ulysses” in 1967 and the 2002 the U.S. progressive metal band Symphony X released a 24-minute adaption of the tale on their album
The Odyssey. Suzanne Vega’south song “Calypso” from 1987 anthology
shows Odysseus from Calypso’southward point of view, and tells the tale of him coming to the isle and his leaving.
Rolf Riehm composed an opera based on the myth,
Sirenen – Bilder des Begehrens und des Vernichtens
(Sirens – Images of Desire and Destruction) which premiered at the Oper Frankfurt in 2014.
Odysseus is featured in a verse of the vocal ‘Journey of the Magi’ on Frank Turner’s 2009 album Poesy of the Deed.
Over time, comparisons between Odysseus and other heroes of dissimilar mythologies and religions have been made.
A similar story exists in Hindu mythology with Nala and Damayanti where Nala separates from Damayanti and is reunited with her.
The story of stringing a bow is similar to the description in the
of Rama stringing the bow to win Sita’s hand in union.
tells the story of Aeneas and his travels to what would go Rome. On his journeying he besides endures strife comparable to that of Odysseus. However, the motives for both of their journeys differ as Aeneas was driven past this sense of duty granted to him by the gods that he must abide by. He also kept in mind the future of his people, fitting for the hereafter
Father of Rome.
In folkloristics, the story of Odysseus’s journeying dorsum to his native Ithaca and wife Penelope corresponds to the tale blazon ATU 974, “The Homecoming Husband”
Altars – Islands – Cities
Strabo writes that on
Μῆνιγξ) isle, mod Djerba at Tunisia, there was an altar of the Odysseus.
Pliny the Elder writes that in Italian republic there were some small islands (modern Torricella, Praca, Brace and other rocks)
which were chosen Ithacesiae because of a watchtower that Odysseus built there.
Co-ordinate to ancient Greek tradition, Odysseus founded a city in Iberia which was called Odysseia (Ὀδύσσεια)
or Odysseis (Ὀδυσσεῖς)
which had a sanctuary of goddess Athena.
Ancient authors identified it with Olisipo (modern Lisbon), but modernistic researchers believe that fifty-fifty its existence is uncertain.
Hellanicus of Lesbos wrote that Rome was founded by Aeneas and Odysseus who came together there. Other ancient historians, including Damastes of Sigeum, agreed with him.
- Odysseus (crater)
- Prince Odysseas-Kimon of Hellenic republic and Kingdom of denmark (born 2004), is the grandson of the deposed Greek male monarch, Constantine II.
- 1143 Odysseus
Run across also
- Returns from Troy
- Odysseus Unbound
Lexico Uk English Dictionary. Oxford University Printing. n.d.
Fragments on Telegony,
as cited in
“μῆτις – Liddell and Scott’s Greek-English Lexicon”. Perseus Project. Archived from the original on 4 September 2018. Retrieved
“, in: Henry George Liddell and Robert Scott:
A Greek–English Lexicon, 1940.
Stanford, William Bedell (1968).
The Ulysses theme. A Study in the Adaptability of a Traditional Hero. New York: Leap Publications. p. 8.
See the entry “Ἀχιλλεύς” in Wiktionary;
dákru, vs. Latin
” in Liddell and Scott,
A Greek–English Lexicon.
” in Liddell and Scott,
A Greek–English Lexicon.
Helmut van Thiel, ed. (2009).
Homers Odysseen. Berlin: Lit. p. 194.
” in Liddell and Scott,
A Greek–English Lexicon.
Marcy George-Kokkinaki (2008).
Literary Anthroponymy: Decoding the Characters in Homer’due south Odyssey
(PDF). Vol. 4. Antrocom. pp. 145–157. Retrieved
Stanford, William Bedell (1968).
The Ulysses theme
. p. 11.
Dihle, Albrecht (1994).
A History of Greek Literature. From Homer to the Hellenistic Period. Translated by Clare Krojzl. London and New York: Routledge. p. nineteen. ISBN978-0-415-08620-2
Robert S. P. Beekes,
Etymological Dictionary of Greek, Brill, Leiden 2009, p. 1048.
A Pre-Greek name for Odysseus, published at
Paleoglot. Ancient languages. Ancient civilizations. Retrieved 4 May 2017.
History of the Fall of Troy
Homer does not list Laërtes as one of the Argonauts.
Scholium on Sophocles’
190, noted in Karl Kerényi,
The Heroes of the Greeks, 1959:77.
“Spread by the powerful kings, // And past the child of the infamous Sisyphid line” (κλέπτουσι μύθους οἱ μεγάλοι βασιλῆς // ἢ τᾶς ἀσώτου Σισυφιδᾶν γενεᾶς): Chorus in
189–190, translated past R. C. Trevelyan.
“A and so-called ‘Homeric’ drinking-cup shows pretty undisguisedly Sisyphos in the bed-chamber of his host’south daughter, the arch-rogue sitting on the bed and the girl with her spindle.”
The Heroes of the Greeks
“Sold by his father Sisyphus” (οὐδ᾽ οὑμπολητὸς Σισύφου Λαερτίῳ): Philoctetes in
417, translated past Thomas Francklin.
“Women in Homer’s Odyssey”. Records.viu.ca. 16 September 1997. Archived from the original on four October 2011. Retrieved
95. Cf. Apollodorus,
D. Gary Miller (2014 ),
Ancient Greek Dialects and Early Authors, De Gruyter ISBN 978-i-61451-493-0. pp. 120-121
Documentation on the “Villa romana de Olmeda”, displaying a photograph of the whole mosaic, entitled “Aquiles en el gineceo de Licomedes” (Achilles in Lycomedes’ ‘seraglio’).
Achilleid, volume ane.
3.8; Hyginus 105.
Bernard Knox (1996): Introduction to Robert Fagles’ translation of
The Odyssey, p. 55.
“Chiliades, 5.23 lines 568-570”.
“Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Roman Antiquities, i.72.5”.
“Pausanias, Description of Greece, viii.14.5”.
“Pausanias, Description of Hellenic republic, 8.14.5”.
“Pausanias, Clarification of Greece, 8.14.6”.
Divine Comedy, canto 26: “fatti non-foste a viver come up bruti / ma per seguir virtute due east conoscenza”.
Nordgren, Elisabeth (fourteen July 2004). “Sommarklassiker: Med fokus på det närvarande. Eyvind Johnson: Strändernas svall, Bonniers 2004”.
Núria Perpinyà (2008):
The Crypts of Criticism: 20 Readings of The Odyssey
Las criptas de la crítica: veinte lecturas de la Odisea, Madrid, Gredos).
Smith, Kyle (v December 2013). “Coen brothers’ ‘Inside Llewyn Davis’ hits the correct notes”.
New York Postal service
“Genius Lyrics – Frank Turner, Journey of the Magi”.
Wendy Doniger (1999).
Splitting the deviation: gender and myth in aboriginal Hellenic republic and India. University of Chicago Press. ISBN978-0-226-15641-v.
Harry Fokkens; et al. (2008). “Bracers or bracelets? About the functionality and meaning of Bell Beaker wrist-guards”.
Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society. Academy of Leiden.
Clark, Raymond J. “The Returning Married man and the Waiting Wife: Folktale Adaptations in Homer, Tennyson and Pratt”. In:
91, no. one (1980): 46–62. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1259818.
READY, JONATHAN Fifty. “ATU 974
THE HOMECOMING Hubby, THE RETURNS OF ODYSSEUS, AND THE END OF
47, no. 3 (2014): 265–85. https://www.jstor.org/stable/26314683.
Shaw, John. “Mythological Aspects of the ‘Return Song’ Theme and their Counterparts in Due north-western Europe”. In:
Nouvelle Mythologie Comparée
nº. half dozen (2021).
Hansen, William P.
Ariadne’s Thread: A Guide to International Tales Found in Classical Literature. Cornell University Press, 2002. pp. 202–210. ISBN 9780801436703.
“Strabo, Geography, §17.three.17”.
“Pliny the Elderberry, Natural History, 3.thirteen, note 21”.
“Pliny the Elderberry, Natural History, 3.13”.
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?medico=urn:cts:greekLit:tlg0099.tlg001.perseus-grc1:3.four.3 Strabo, Geography, 3.2.13
Strabo, Geography, three.4.3
Stephanus of Byzantium, Ethnica, O484.7
Lexicon of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), Odysseia
Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Roman Antiquities, Book I, 72
Solmsen, Friedrich (1986). “Aeneas Founded Rome with Odysseus”.
Harvard Studies in Classical Philology.
90: 93–110. doi:10.2307/311463. JSTOR 311463. Retrieved
Tole, Vasil S. (2005).
Odyssey and Sirens: A Temptation towards the Mystery of the Iso-polyphonic Regions of Epirus. A Homeric theme with variations. Tirana, Albania. ISBN99943-31-63-9.
Bittlestone, Robert; Diggle, James; Underhill, John (2005).
Odysseus Unbound: The Search for Homer’s Ithaca
. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Academy Press. ISBN0-521-85357-5
(Odysseus Unbound Foundation)
Bradford, Ernle (1963).
Ulysses Establish. Hodder & Stoughton.
- “Archaeological discovery in Greece may be the tomb of Odysseus” from the
Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911).
(11th ed.). Cambridge University Printing.
Odysseus is Called to Adventure When He