A Comma is Required When ___



Habitation




PARTS OF Speech



Sentence Structure



PUNCTUATION



USAGE



EXERCISES

Self-Teaching Unit:

Major Comma Uses

� 2005, 2002, 1987 Margaret L. Benner  All rights reserved.



COMMA RULE #1 � THE COMMA IN A SERIES



:
Use commas to separate items in a series.

 What is a �series�?


A �series� is a list of 3 or more items, the last two of which are joined by

and
,

or
, or

nor
.


_____________
,

______________
,

and _____________

EXAMPLES:



Any of these can be put into sentence grade.



The of import things to retrieve about using commas in serial are these:

1.
A serial includes three or more than items of the same blazon (words or groups of words).

2.
The series is connected by

and
,

or
, or

nor

earlier the last item.

3.
A comma separates items in the series, including the final particular preceded by

and
,

or
, or

nor
.

Now click on the link beneath to do exercise ane.





Link to Exercise 1





COMMA RULE #ii � THE COMMA WITH COORDINATE ADJECTIVES


:
Utilise commas betwixt coordinate adjectives.


What are �coordinate adjectives�?



�Coordinate adjectives� are adjectives placed next to each other that are equal in importance.


Two tests to make up one’s mind whether adjectives are coordinate are the following:


        i.
See whether �and� can be smoothly placed between them.



2.
See whether the adjectives� gild can exist reversed.


Expect at this example.

In this case, a comma belongs between

happy

and

lively

because they are coordinate adjectives.

Test to make certain:




First, try the �and� test.




And


placed betwixt the 2 adjectives sounds smooth.



Second, endeavor reversing the adjectives.






When the adjectives are reversed, the judgement still makes sense.


Thus

,

happy

and

lively

are coordinate adjectives in the case and should exist separated by a comma.




CAUTION: Not all describing word pairs are coordinate adjectives.
Thus, non all adjectives should be separated from one another by a comma.

Look at this example.



In this example, no comma belongs between the two adjectives

immature

and

golden

because they are
not
coordinate adjectives.

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How tin we know?




First, try the �and� test.






And
placed between the two adjectives does
not
fit smoothly.




Second, attempt reversing the adjectives.






When the two adjectives are reversed, they practice
not
make sense.


Thus

,

young

and

aureate

are
not
coordinate adjectives and should non exist separated by a comma.




Now click on the link below to do practise 2.





Link to Exercise 2





COMMA Rule #3 � THE COMMA IN A COMPOUND Sentence


: Use a comma before

and, simply, or, nor, for, so,

or

yet


to join two independent clauses that form a compound sentence.

What is a compound sentence?



A

compound sentence

is a sentence that has
2 contained clauses.



An

independent clause

is a grouping of words with a bailiwick and verb that expresses

a complete thought.
It is also known as a

elementary judgement
.
An independent clause can stand alone as a sentence.

The 2 independent clauses in a compound sentence can be joined by:

         A. Semicolons






OR



B.A comma and one of the seven joining words:

for, and, nor, but, or, yet,

and

so
.
(Taken together, the starting time messages spell
�FANBOYS.�)




This concluding blazon of compound sentence is the one we will concentrate on for comma utilize.

A chemical compound sentence must take two independent clauses � not simply ii verbs, two nouns, or two groups of words that are
not
independent clauses.


Wait at this case.



In the above example, 2 verb groups are being joined by

and
.
The second verb group does
NOT
take a bailiwick; thus, it is
Non
an independent clause.

Therefore,
NO
comma belongs before

and
.

This example is a

uncomplicated judgement

with a

compound verb
, not a compound sentence.

However, we can make this sentence into a compound sentence by simply making the last verb part into an independent clause.




Now we have a �bona fide� compound sentence.
The two independent clauses are separated past a comma and the discussion

and
.

Here are some other examples which illustrate the difference between compound elements in simple sentences (no comma) and truthful compound sentences (comma).

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Now you are ready to try an practise.

Make certain that yous:



1.
Know the seven joining words (
f

or,
and,
nor,
but,
or,
yet,
so
).

two. Can distinguish betwixt simple sentences with compound elements (no
comma) and chemical compound sentences (comma).

Now click on the link beneath to exercise do 3.





LINK TO Exercise iii






COMMA RULE #4 � THE COMMA WITH INTRODUCTORY WORDS



:
Identify a comma after introductory phrases that tell

where
,

when
,

why
, or

how

.

Specifically
. . . use a comma:


i.
Later a long introductory phrase.


Example:



Usually, it is NOT necessary to use a comma later
brusk
introductory prepositional phrases.

Instance:




2.
Afterward an introductory phrase made up of �to� plus a verb and whatsoever modifiers (�infinitive�) that tells
why.


Example:



Use a comma fifty-fifty after a
short
�to� + verb phrase that answers

why
.

Example:



You can tell you take this kind of introductory �to� + verb phrase when you can put the words �in gild� in front end of the phrase.

Example:



Be careful!
Not all introductory �to� phrases tell

why
.


3.
Afterwards an introductory clause that answers




when?
where?


why?


how?


to what degree?



(A �clause� is a group of words with a subject and a verb.)

Examples:






Note: When such a clause comes at the

end

of a sentence, do NOT use a comma.

Examples:





At present click on the link below to exercise exercise 4.




Link to Exercise 4




COMMA Rule #v � THE COMMA WITH NONESSENTIAL WORDS, PHRASES, AND CLAUSES:



Separate with a comma any nonessential words or groups of words from the residue of the judgement.


i.
Dissever �interrupter� words like
nevertheless,
nevertheless,
yes,
no,
of grade, from the rest of the judgement.


Examples:






2.

Divide a �renamer� (an appositive) from the rest of the judgement with a comma.

Example:


iii.
Divide adjective phrases from the essential parts of the judgement.



(An �adjective� describes or limits a noun.)


Examples:

In each case to a higher place, �Mary Roberts ran downwards the street� comprises the

essential

part of the judgement.
The adjective phrases are

nonessential

and should be separated from the residuum of the sentence with commas.

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four.
Separate nonessential
describing word clauses
from the rest of the sentence.


There are two kinds of adjective clauses:





– one that is needed for the sentence to exist complete (ESSENTIAL)





– one that is Non needed for the sentence to exist complete (NONESSENTIAL)

The

essential

adjective clause should Non be separated from the sentence with commas.

The

nonessential

adjective clause (similar other nonessential elements) SHOULD be separated with commas.

2 examples illustrate the difference:

 A.

B.







Look at example A.
If we remove the adjective clause �who robbed the banking concern,� the sentence reads, �The human being was defenseless today.�
Without the describing word clause (�who robbed the bank�), we exercise not know
which
homo was caught.
Thus, the adjective clause is needed to complete the sentence�s meaning.
In other words, this adjective clause is

essential
.
Every bit the rule notes, practise
not
utilise commas around essential adjective clauses.

Now look at example B.
If nosotros remove the adjective clause �who robbed the bank,� the sentence reads, �Sam Spider was caught today.�
Without the adjective clause (�who robbed a bank�), we
practise
know which human being was caught (Sam Spider).
Thus, the adjective clause is NOT needed to complete the sentence�s meaning.
In other words, this clause is

nonessential
.
Following the rule, you should separate this adjective clause from the residuum of the judgement.




REMEMBER, in that location are 4 nonessential elements that should be separated from the rest of the sentence with commas:

1.
�interrupter� words similar

of class
,

however

ii.
�renamers� (appositives)

3.
nonessential describing word phrases



4.
nonessential adjective clauses

At present click on the link below to exercise practice five.





Link to Exercise five



At present click on the link beneath to practise the post exam.




Link to the Post Test


A Comma is Required When ___

Source: https://www.towson.edu/ows/modulecomma.htm#:~:text=Now%20click%20on%20the%20link%20below%20to%20do%20exercise%202.&text=COMMA%20RULE%20%233%20%E2%80%93%20THE%20COMMA,What%20is%20a%20compound%20sentence%3F