All of the Following Are Types of Societies Except

Learning Objectives

By the finish of this department, you will exist able to:

  • Describe the difference betwixt preindustrial, industrial, and postindustrial societies
  • Understand the role of surroundings on preindustrial societies
  • Understand how technology impacts societal development

How does engineering science influence a lodge’due south daily occupations? (Photo courtesy of Mo Riza/flickr)

Hunting and gathering tribes, industrialized Nihon, Americans—each is a society. But what does this mean? Exactly what is a lodge? In sociological terms,
refers to a group of people who live in a definable community and share the same culture. On a broader scale, club consists of the people and institutions effectually united states of america, our shared beliefs, and our cultural ideas. Typically, more than-advanced societies also share a political authorisation.

Sociologist Gerhard Lenski (1924–) defined societies in terms of their technological sophistication. As a gild advances, so does its utilize of applied science. Societies with rudimentary applied science depend on the fluctuations of their environments, while industrialized societies take more than control over the bear on of their surroundings and thus develop dissimilar cultural features. This distinction is so important that sociologists generally classify societies along a spectrum of their level of industrialization—from preindustrial to industrial to postindustrial.

Preindustrial Societies

Earlier the Industrial Revolution and the widespread employ of machines, societies were small, rural, and dependent largely on local resources. Economic product was express to the amount of labor a human being could provide, and there were few specialized occupations. The very first occupation was that of hunter-gatherer.


Hunter-gatherer societies
demonstrate the strongest dependence on the surround of the various types of preindustrial societies. Every bit the basic structure of human society until about ten,000–12,000 years ago, these groups were based effectually kinship or tribes. Hunter-gatherers relied on their surroundings for survival—they hunted wild fauna and foraged for uncultivated plants for nutrient. When resources became deficient, the grouping moved to a new expanse to find sustenance, meaning they were nomadic. These societies were common until several hundred years ago, just today only a few hundred remain in being, such as indigenous Australian tribes sometimes referred to every bit “aborigines,” or the Bambuti, a group of pygmy hunter-gatherers residing in the Autonomous Democracy of Congo. Hunter-gatherer groups are apace disappearing equally the earth’s population explodes.


Changing conditions and adaptations led some societies to rely on the domestication of animals where circumstances permitted. Roughly 7,500 years ago, man societies began to recognize their ability to tame and breed animals and to abound and cultivate their own plants.
Pastoral societies, such every bit the Maasai villagers, rely on the domestication of animals as a resource for survival. Unlike before hunter-gatherers who depended entirely on existing resources to stay alive, pastoral groups were able to brood livestock for nutrient, vesture, and transportation, and they created a surplus of goods. Herding, or pastoral, societies remained nomadic because they were forced to follow their animals to fresh feeding grounds. Effectually the time that pastoral societies emerged, specialized occupations began to develop, and societies commenced trading with local groups.

Where Societies Come across—The Worst and the Best

When cultures meet, engineering can help, hinder, and fifty-fifty destroy. The Exxon Valdez oil spillage in Alaska nearly destroyed the local inhabitant’s unabridged style of life. Oil spills in the Nigerian Delta have forced many of the Ogoni tribe from their land and forced removal has meant that over 100,000 Ogoni have sought refuge in the country of Benin (University of Michigan, n.d.). And the massive Deepwater Horizon oil spill of 2006 drew great attention as it occurred in what is the most developed country, the Us. Environmental disasters keep as Western engineering and its need for energy expands into less adult (peripheral) regions of the globe.

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Of course not all technology is bad. We have electric lite for granted in the United States, Europe, and the rest of the developed globe. Such light extends the 24-hour interval and allows united states to work, read, and travel at night. It makes u.s.a. safer and more than productive. But regions in Bharat, Africa, and elsewhere are not and so fortunate. Coming together the challenge, one detail organization, Barefoot College, located in Commune Ajmer, Rajasthan, Republic of india, works with numerous less developed nations to bring solar electricity, water solutions, and education. The focus for the solar projects is the village elders. The elders agree to select 2 grandmothers to be trained equally solar engineers and choose a village committee composed of men and women to assistance operate the solar programme.

The plan has brought light to over 450,000 people in 1,015 villages. The environmental rewards include a large reduction in the use of kerosene and in carbon dioxide emissions. The fact that the villagers are operating the projects themselves helps minimize their sense of dependence.

Alt text: A photo of a family of villagers in Africa in front of a solar panel on top of a roof

Otherwise skeptic or hesitant villagers are more easily convinced of the value of the solar projection when they realize that the “solar engineers” are their local grandmothers. (Photo courtesy of Abri le Roux/flickr)


Around the same time that pastoral societies were on the rise, some other type of club developed, based on the newly developed capacity for people to grow and cultivate plants. Previously, the depletion of a region’southward crops or water supply forced pastoral societies to relocate in search of nutrient sources for their livestock.
Horticultural societies
formed in areas where rainfall and other conditions immune them to abound stable crops. They were like to hunter-gatherers in that they largely depended on the environment for survival, but since they didn’t have to abandon their location to follow resources, they were able to start permanent settlements. This created more stability and more cloth goods and became the basis for the first revolution in human being survival.


While pastoral and horticultural societies used small, temporary tools such as excavation sticks or hoes,
agricultural societies
relied on permanent tools for survival. Effectually 3000 B.C.E., an explosion of new applied science known as the Agronomical Revolution made farming possible—and profitable. Farmers learned to rotate the types of crops grown on their fields and to reuse waste product products such every bit fertilizer, which led to better harvests and bigger surpluses of food. New tools for digging and harvesting were made of metal, and this made them more effective and longer lasting. Homo settlements grew into towns and cities, and particularly bountiful regions became centers of merchandise and commerce.

This is also the age in which people had the time and condolement to engage in more contemplative and thoughtful activities, such as music, poetry, and philosophy. This period became referred to as the “dawn of civilization” by some because of the development of leisure and humanities. Craftspeople were able to back up themselves through the production of artistic, decorative, or thought-provoking artful objects and writings.

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As resources became more plentiful, social classes became more divisive. Those who had more than resources could beget better living and developed into a class of dignity. Difference in social standing betwixt men and women increased. As cities expanded, ownership and preservation of resource became a pressing concern.


The ninth century gave rising to
feudal societies. These societies contained a strict hierarchical organization of power based around land ownership and protection. The nobility, known equally lords, placed vassals in accuse of pieces of land. In return for the resources that the country provided, vassals promised to fight for their lords.

These individual pieces of land, known every bit fiefdoms, were cultivated by the lower course. In return for maintaining the land, peasants were guaranteed a identify to live and protection from outside enemies. Power was handed down through family unit lines, with peasant families serving lords for generations and generations. Ultimately, the social and economic organisation of bullwork failed and was replaced by capitalism and the technological advances of the industrial era.

Industrial Society

In the eighteenth century, Europe experienced a dramatic rise in technological invention, ushering in an era known every bit the Industrial Revolution. What made this menstruation remarkable was the number of new inventions that influenced people’s daily lives. Within a generation, tasks that had until this point required months of labor became achievable in a matter of days. Before the Industrial Revolution, work was largely person- or animate being-based, and relied on man workers or horses to ability mills and drive pumps. In 1782, James Watt and Matthew Boulton created a steam engine that could do the work of twelve horses by itself.

Steam power began appearing everywhere. Instead of paying artisans to painstakingly spin wool and weave it into cloth, people turned to textile mills that produced fabric quickly at a better cost and often with amend quality. Rather than planting and harvesting fields by hand, farmers were able to purchase mechanical seeders and threshing machines that acquired agricultural productivity to soar. Products such as paper and glass became available to the average person, and the quality and accessibility of education and health care soared. Gas lights allowed increased visibility in the nighttime, and towns and cities developed a nightlife.

I of the results of increased productivity and applied science was the rising of urban centers. Workers flocked to factories for jobs, and the populations of cities became increasingly diverse. The new generation became less preoccupied with maintaining family unit land and traditions and more focused on acquiring wealth and achieving upward mobility for themselves and their families. People wanted their children and their children’southward children to continue to ascension to the top, and as commercialism increased, so did social mobility.

Information technology was during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries of the Industrial Revolution that sociology was born. Life was changing quickly and the long-established traditions of the agronomical eras did not apply to life in the larger cities. Masses of people were moving to new environments and often constitute themselves faced with horrendous conditions of filth, overcrowding, and poverty. Social scientists emerged to report the relationship betwixt the individual members of society and social club equally a whole.

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It was during this fourth dimension that power moved from the easily of the aristocracy and “sometime coin” to business-savvy newcomers who amassed fortunes in their lifetimes. Families such as the Rockefellers and the Vanderbilts became the new power players and used their influence in business organisation to control aspects of government too. Eventually, concerns over the exploitation of workers led to the germination of labor unions and laws that fix mandatory conditions for employees. Although the introduction of new technology at the finish of the nineteenth century ended the industrial age, much of our social structure and social ideas—similar family, childhood, and time standardization—have a basis in industrial society.

Photo of John D. Rockefeller.

John D. Rockefeller, cofounder of the Standard Oil Company, came from an unremarkable family of salesmen and menial laborers. By his death at historic period 98, he was worth $1.iv billion. In industrial societies, business owners such as Rockefeller hold the majority of the power. (Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Eatables)

Postindustrial Guild

Information societies, sometimes known as postindustrial or digital societies, are a recent evolution. Different
industrial societies
that are rooted in the product of material goods, data societies are based on the production of information and services.

Digital technology is the steam engine of data societies, and computer moguls such equally Steve Jobs and Bill Gates are its John D. Rockefellers and Cornelius Vanderbilts. Since the economy of information societies is driven by noesis and non material appurtenances, power lies with those in charge of storing and distributing information. Members of a postindustrial society are likely to be employed as sellers of services—software programmers or business consultants, for instance—instead of producers of goods. Social classes are divided by access to education, since without technical skills, people in an information society lack the means for success.


Societies are classified according to their evolution and use of technology. For nearly of homo history, people lived in preindustrial societies characterized by limited technology and low production of appurtenances. Afterward the Industrial Revolution, many societies based their economies around mechanized labor, leading to greater profits and a tendency toward greater social mobility. At the turn of the new millennium, a new type of guild emerged. This postindustrial, or data, society is congenital on digital technology and nonmaterial goods.

Short Reply

In which type or types of societies do the benefits seem to outweigh the costs? Explain your answer, and cite social and economic reasons.

Is Gerhard Lenski correct in classifying societies based on technological advances? What other criteria might be appropriate, based on what you have read?


agricultural societies
societies that rely on farming as a way of life
feudal societies
societies that operate on a strict hierarchical organization of power based around land ownership and protection
horticultural societies
societies based around the cultivation of plants
hunter-gatherer societies
societies that depend on hunting wild animals and gathering uncultivated plants for survival
industrial societies
societies characterized past a reliance on mechanized labor to create cloth goods
information societies
societies based on the production of nonmaterial goods and services
pastoral societies
societies based around the domestication of animals
a group of people who alive in a definable community and share the aforementioned culture

Further Research

The Maasai are a modern pastoral social club with an economy largely structured around herds of cattle. Read more near the Maasai people and run across pictures of their daily lives here:


Clearing and Refugee Lath of Canada. 2005. “Israel: Treatment of Bedouin, Including Incidents of Harassment, Discrimination or Attacks; State Protection (January 2003–July 2005)”, Refworld, July 29. Retrieved February 10, 2012 (

Kjeilen, Tore. “Bedouin.” Retrieved February 17, 2012 (

Academy of Michigan. n.d. “The Expletive of Oil in Ogoniland”. Retrieved Jan 2, 2015 (http://world wide

All of the Following Are Types of Societies Except