The Compound Fecl3 is Made of

The Compound Fecl3 is Made of

Inorganic chemical compound

Fe(Three) chloride

Iron(III) chloride (hydrate)

Iron(III) chloride anhydrate.jpg

Iron(Iii) chloride (anhydrous)

Iron-trichloride-sheet-3D-polyhedra.png

Iron-trichloride-sheets-stacking-3D-polyhedra.png

Names
IUPAC names

Fe(Three) chloride
Iron trichloride

Other names

  • Ferric chloride
  • Molysite
  • Flores martis
Identifiers

CAS Number

  • 7705-08-0
    check
    Y
  • 10025-77-1
    (hexahydrate)check
    Y
  • 54862-84-9
    (dihydrate)check
    Y
  • 64333-00-ii
    (iii.5hydrate)

3D model (JSmol)

  • Interactive paradigm
ChEBI
  • CHEBI:30808
    check
    Y
ChemSpider
  • 22792
    check
    Y
ECHA InfoCard 100.028.846
Edit this at Wikidata
EC Number
  • 231-729-4

PubChem
CID

  • 24380
RTECS number
  • LJ9100000
UNII
  • U38V3ZVV3V
    check
    Y
  • 0I2XIN602U (hexahydrate)check
    Y
  • Y048945596 (dihydrate)check
    Y
UN number
  • 1773 (anhydrous)
  • 2582 (aqueous solution)

CompTox Dashboard
(EPA)

  • DTXSID8020622
    Edit this at Wikidata

InChI

  • InChI=1S/3ClH.Fe/h3*1H;/q;;;+iii/p-3check
    Y

    Key: RBTARNINKXHZNM-UHFFFAOYSA-Kcheck
    Y

  • InChI=1S/3ClH.Fe/h3*1H;/q;;;+3/p-3

    Cardinal: RBTARNINKXHZNM-DFZHHIFOAF

  • Key: RBTARNINKXHZNM-UHFFFAOYSA-Chiliad

SMILES

  • Cl[Fe](Cl)Cl

Properties

Chemical formula

FeCliii
Molar mass
  • 162.204m/mol (anhydrous)
  • 270.295g/mol (hexahydrate)[one]
Appearance Dark-green-black by reflected calorie-free; royal-red by transmitted light; xanthous solid as hexahydrate; chocolate-brown as aqueous solution
Odor Slight HCl
Density
  • ii.ninetyg/cmiii
    (anhydrous)
  • one.82k/cm3
    (hexahydrate)[1]
Melting bespeak 307.half dozen °C (585.seven °F; 580.viii Thou) (anhydrous)
37 °C (99 °F; 310 M) (hexahydrate)[i]
Humid point
  • 316 °C (601 °F; 589 K) (anhydrous, decomposes)[1]
  • 280 °C (536 °F; 553 K) (hexahydrate, decomposes)

Solubility in water

912g/L (anhydrous or hexahydrate, 25°C)[1]
Solubility in

  • Acetone
  • Methanol
  • Ethanol
  • Diethyl ether[1]
  • 630 one thousand/L (18 °C)
  • Highly soluble
  • 830 g/L
  • Highly soluble

Magnetic susceptibility (χ)

+xiii,450·x−6
cm3/mol[2]
Viscosity 12 cP (40% solution)
Structure

Crystal structure

Hexagonal, hR24

Infinite group

R3, No. 148[3]

Lattice constant

a = 0.6065nm,
b = 0.6065nm,
c = 1.742nm

α = xc°, β = 90°, γ = 120°

Formula units (Z)

6

Coordination geometry

Octahedral
Hazards[5]
[half dozen]
[Note ane]
GHS
labelling:

Pictograms

Corr. Met. 1; Skin Corr. 1C; Eye Dam. 1
Acute Tox. 4 (oral)

Point discussion

Danger

Hazard statements

H290,
H302,
H314

Precautionary statements

P234,
P260,
P264,
P270,
P273,
P280,
P301+P312,
P301+P330+P331,
P303+P361+P353,
P304+P340,
P305+P351+P338,
P310,
P321,
P363,
P390,
P405,
P406,
P501
NFPA 704
(fire diamond)

2

Flash signal Non-flammable
NIOSH
(United states health exposure limits):

REL (Recommended)

TWA onemg/m3
[4]
Safety data sheet (SDS) ICSC
1499
Related compounds

Other anions

  • Iron(III) fluoride
  • Iron(Iii) bromide

Other cations

  • Iron(2) chloride
  • Manganese(Two) chloride
  • Cobalt(II) chloride
  • Ruthenium(Iii) chloride

Related coagulants

  • Iron(II) sulfate
  • Polyaluminium chloride

Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).

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Infobox references

Chemical compound

Iron(III) chloride
is the inorganic chemical compound with the formula
FeCl3
. As well called
ferric chloride, information technology is a common compound of atomic number 26 in the +3 oxidation land. The anhydrous compound is a crystalline solid with a melting point of 307.6 °C. The color depends on the viewing angle: by reflected calorie-free the crystals announced nighttime greenish, only by transmitted low-cal they appear royal-red.

Structure and properties

[edit]

Anhydrous

[edit]

Anhydrous iron(Iii) chloride has the
BiI3

structure, with octahedral Fe(Iii) centers interconnected by two-coordinate chloride ligands.[3]

Iron(III) chloride has a relatively depression melting point and boils at around 315 °C. The vapor consists of the dimer
Iron2Cl6

(similar aluminium chloride) which increasingly dissociates into the monomeric
FeClthree

(with D3h
point group molecular symmetry) at college temperature, in competition with its reversible decomposition to requite fe(II) chloride and chlorine gas.[8]

Hydrates

[edit]

In addition to the anhydrous material, ferric chloride forms four hydrates. All forms of fe(III) chloride feature two or more chlorides as ligands, and 3 hydrates feature
[FeCl4]
.[9]

  • dihydrate:
    FeClthree·2H2O
    has the structural formula
    trans[FeCl2(H2O)4][FeCl4].
  • FeClthree·2.5HiiO
    has the structural formula
    cis[FeCl2(HiiO)iv][FeCl4]·H2O.
  • FeCliii·3.5H2O
    has the structural formula
    cis[FeCl2(HiiO)4][FeCl4]·3H2O.
  • hexahydrate:
    FeClthree·6HiiO
    has the structural formula
    trans[FeCl2(H2O)4]Cl·2H2O.[10]

Aqueous solution

[edit]

Aqueous solutions of ferric chloride are characteristically yellow, in contrast to the stake pinkish solutions of
[Atomic number 26(H2O)6]3+
. According to spectroscopic measurements, the main species in aqueous solutions of ferric chloride are the octahedral complex
[FeCl2(HtwoO)4]+

(stereochemistry unspecified) and the tetrahedral
[FeCl4]
.[9]

Grooming

[edit]

Anhydrous iron(III) chloride may be prepared past treating iron with chlorine:[11]

ii Fe + iii Cl2
→ 2 FeCliii

Solutions of iron(3) chloride are produced industrially both from iron and from ore, in a closed-loop process.

  1. Dissolving iron ore in muriatic acid
    Iron3Oiv
    + eight HCl → FeCl2
    + two FeClthree
    + 4 HtwoO
  2. Oxidation of iron(II) chloride with chlorine
    2 FeCl2
    + Cl2
    → 2 FeCliii
  3. Oxidation of iron(Two) chloride with oxygen and hydrochloric acid
    4 FeCl2
    + Oii
    + 4 HCl → iv FeCl3
    + ii H2O
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Heating hydrated atomic number 26(Iii) chloride does non yield anhydrous ferric chloride. Instead, the solid decomposes into hydrochloric acid and iron oxychloride. Hydrated atomic number 26(Iii) chloride can be converted to the anhydrous grade by treatment with thionyl chloride.[12]
Similarly, dehydration can be effected with trimethylsilyl chloride:[thirteen]

FeCl3·6H2O + 12 (CH3)iiiSiCl → FeClthree
+ six ((CHiii)3Si)iiO + 12 HCl

Reactions

[edit]

A brown, acidic solution of atomic number 26(III) chloride

When dissolved in water, iron(III) chloride give a strongly acidic solution.[xiv]
[9]

When heated with fe(III) oxide at 350 °C, iron(3) chloride gives atomic number 26 oxychloride.[xv]

FeCl3
+ Atomic number 262O3
→ 3FeOCl

The anhydrous salt is a moderately strong Lewis acid, forming adducts with Lewis bases such as triphenylphosphine oxide; e.g.,
FeCl3(OPPh3)2

where Ph is phenyl. It also reacts with other chloride salts to give the yellow tetrahedral
[FeCl4]

ion. Salts of
[FeCl4]

in hydrochloric acid can be extracted into diethyl ether.

Redox reactions

[edit]

Fe(III) chloride is a mild oxidizing amanuensis, for example, information technology oxidizes copper(I) chloride to copper(Two) chloride.

FeCl3
+ CuCl → FeClii
+ CuCltwo

In a comproportionation reaction, it reacts with iron to course iron(II) chloride:

two FeCl3
+ Fe → 3 FeCltwo

A traditional synthesis of anhydrous ferrous chloride is the reduction of FeClthree
with chlorobenzene:[16]

two FeCliii
+ C6H5Cl → 2 FeCl2
+ C6HfourCl2
+ HCl

With carboxylate anions

[edit]

Oxalates react rapidly with aqueous iron(III) chloride to give
[Fe(CiiO4)3]3−
. Other carboxylate salts form complexes; e.thousand., citrate and tartrate.

With alkaline metal alkoxides

[edit]

Alkali metal alkoxides react to give the metal alkoxide complexes of varying complexity.[17]
The compounds can exist dimeric or trimeric.[18]
In the solid stage a variety of multinuclear complexes have been described for the nominal stoichiometric reaction betwixt
FeClthree

and sodium ethoxide:[19]
[xx]

FeCl3
+ iii [CH3CH2O]Na+
→ Fe(OCH2CH3)3
+ three NaCl

With organometallic compounds

[edit]

Iron(III) chloride in ether solution oxidizes methyl lithium
LiCH3

to give first light greenish yellow lithium tetrachloroferrate(3)
Li[FeCliv]
solution and so, with further improver of methyl lithium, lithium tetrachloroferrate(2)
Li2[FeCl4]:[21]

2 FeCl3
+ LiCH3
→ FeClii
+ Li[FeCl4] + •CH3
Li[FeCl4] + LiCH3
→ Litwo[FeCl4] + •CH3

The methyl radicals combine with themselves or react with other components to give generally ethane
CiiH6

and some marsh gas
CH4
.

Uses

[edit]

Industrial

[edit]

Iron(III) chloride is used in sewage treatment and drinking water production as a coagulant and flocculant.[22]
In this awarding,
FeCl3

in slightly basic water reacts with the hydroxide ion (OH
) to form a floc of atomic number 26(Iii) hydroxide (Fe(OH)3
), too formulated equally FeO(OH) (ferrihydrite), that tin can remove suspended materials.

[Atomic number 26(H2O)6]3+
+ 4 OH
→ [Fe(OH)4(H2O)2]
+ 4 H2O → [FeO(OH)ii(H2O)]
+ 6 H2O

It is also used every bit a leaching agent in chloride hydrometallurgy,[23]
for example in the product of Si from FeSi (Silgrain procedure by Elkem).[24]

Another of import awarding of iron(Iii) chloride is etching copper in two-pace redox reaction to copper(I) chloride and then to copper(II) chloride in the product of printed circuit boards (PCB).[25]

FeCliii
+ Cu → FeCltwo
+ CuCl
FeClthree
+ CuCl → FeCl2
+ CuCl2

Atomic number 26(III) chloride is used equally catalyst for the reaction of ethylene with chlorine, forming ethylene dichloride (1,2-dichloroethane), an important article chemical, which is mainly used for the industrial production of vinyl chloride, the monomer for making PVC.

H2C=CH2
+ Cl2
→ ClCHiiCH2Cl

Laboratory apply

[edit]

In the laboratory iron(Iii) chloride is commonly employed as a Lewis acid for catalyzing reactions such as chlorination of effluvious compounds and Friedel–Crafts reaction of aromatics.[
commendation needed
]

It is less powerful than aluminum chloride, merely in some cases this mildness leads to higher yields, for case in the alkylation of benzene:

Iron(III) chloride as a catalyst

The ferric chloride test is a traditional colorimetric examination for phenols, which uses a 1% iron(III) chloride solution that has been neutralized with sodium hydroxide until a slight precipitate of FeO(OH) is formed.[26]
The mixture is filtered before use. The organic substance is dissolved in water, methanol or ethanol, and so the neutralized iron(III) chloride solution is added—a transient or permanent coloration (usually royal, green or blue) indicates the presence of a phenol or enol.

This reaction is exploited in the Trinder spot exam, which is used to indicate the presence of salicylates, particularly salicylic acid, which contains a phenolic OH group.

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This test can be used to notice the presence of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid and gamma-butyrolactone,[27]
which crusade it to turn red-dark-brown.

Other uses

[edit]

  • Used in anhydrous class as a drying reagent in certain reactions.
  • Used to detect the presence of phenol compounds in organic synthesis; e.chiliad., examining purity of synthesized Aspirin.
  • Used in water and wastewater treatment to precipitate phosphate as iron(Iii) phosphate.
  • Used in wastewater treatment for odour control.
  • Used by American coin collectors to place the dates of Buffalo nickels that are so badly worn that the appointment is no longer visible.
  • Used by bladesmiths and artisans in pattern welding to etch the metal, giving it a contrasting effect, to view metal layering or imperfections.
  • Used to etch the widmanstatten pattern in fe meteorites.
  • Necessary for the carving of photogravure plates for printing photographic and fine art images in intaglio and for carving rotogravure cylinders used in the press manufacture.
  • Used to brand printed excursion boards (PCBs) by etching copper.
  • Used to strip aluminum coating from mirrors.
  • Used to etch intricate medical devices.
  • Used in veterinary practice to treat overcropping of an animal’s claws, particularly when the overcropping results in bleeding.
  • Reacts with cyclopentadienylmagnesium bromide in ane grooming of ferrocene, a metal-sandwich complex.[28]
  • Sometimes used in a technique of Raku ware firing, the iron coloring a pottery piece shades of pink, brown, and orange.
  • Used to test the pitting and cleft corrosion resistance of stainless steels and other alloys.
  • Used in conjunction with NaI in acetonitrile to mildly reduce organic azides to chief amines.[29]
  • Used in an animal thrombosis model.[30]
  • Used in an experimental energy storage systems.[31]
  • Historically information technology was used to make straight positive blueprints.[32]
    [33]
  • A component of modified Carnoy’s solution used for surgical treatment of keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KOT).
  • Used equally an additive to sodium chloride (NaCl) to produce clear crystals.

Safety

[edit]

Iron(III) chloride is harmful, highly corrosive and acidic. The anhydrous fabric is a powerful dehydrating agent.

Although reports of poisoning in humans are rare, ingestion of ferric chloride can result in serious morbidity and mortality. Inappropriate labeling and storage pb to accidental swallowing or misdiagnosis. Early on diagnosis is important, especially in seriously poisoned patients.

Natural occurrence

[edit]

The natural analogue of
FeCl3

is the rare mineral
molysite, normally related to volcanic and other-blazon fumaroles.[34]
[35]

FeClthree

is also produced as an atmospheric table salt droplets by reaction between iron-rich dust and hydrochloric acrid from bounding main salt. This iron salt aerosol causes most v% of naturally-occurring oxidization of methane and is thought to accept a range of cooling effects.[36]

The temper of the planet Venus is approximately 1%
FeCl3
.[37]
[38]

Encounter too

[edit]

  • Verhoeff’s stain
  • Ferrosilicon

Notes

[edit]


  1. ^

    An alternative GHS nomenclature from the Japanese GHS Inter-ministerial Committee (2006)[7]
    notes the possibility of respiratory tract irritation from
    FeCl3

    and differs slightly in other respects from the classification used hither.

References

[edit]

  1. ^


    a




    b




    c




    d




    e




    f




    Haynes, William M., ed. (2011).
    CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics
    (92nd ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Printing. p. 4.69. ISBNane-4398-5511-0.



  2. ^


    Haynes, William Thousand., ed. (2011).
    CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics
    (92nd ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Printing. p. iv.133. ISBN1-4398-5511-0.


  3. ^


    a




    b




    Hashimoto S, Forster Chiliad, Moss SC (1989). “Structure refinement of an FeCl3
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    NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemic Hazards. “#0346”. National Found for Occupational Safe and Health (NIOSH).


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    HSNO Chemical Classification Data Database, New Zealand Environmental Risk Management Potency, retrieved
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  7. ^



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    nineteen Sep
    2010




  8. ^


    Holleman AF, Wiberg E (2001). Wiberg N (ed.).
    Inorganic Chemistry. San Diego: Academic Press. ISBN978-0-12-352651-9.


  9. ^


    a




    b




    c




    Simon A. Cotton fiber (2018). “Atomic number 26(3) chloride and its coordination chemical science”.
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  10. ^


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  11. ^


    Tarr BR, Booth HS, Dolance A (1950).
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  12. ^


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  13. ^


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  14. ^


    Housecroft, C. Due east.; Sharpe, A. 1000. (2012).
    Inorganic Chemistry
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  15. ^


    Kikkawa South, Kanamaru F, Koizumi M, et al. (1984). “Layered Intercalation Compounds”. In Holt SL Jr (ed.).
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  16. ^


    P. Kovacic and N. O. Brace (1960). “Iron(2) Chloride”.
    Inorganic Syntheses. Inorganic Syntheses. Vol. half dozen. pp. 172–173. doi:10.1002/9780470132371.ch54. ISBN9780470132371.



  17. ^


    Turova NY, Turevskaya EP, Kessler VG, et al., eds. (2002). “12.22.1 Synthesis”.
    The Chemistry of Metallic Alkoxides. Springer Science. p. 481. ISBN0306476576.



  18. ^


    Bradley DC, Mehrotra RC, Rothwell I, et al. (2001). “three.2.10. Alkoxides of later 3d metals”.
    Alkoxo and aryloxo derivatives of metals. San Diego: Academic Press. p. 69. ISBN9780121241407. OCLC 162129468.



  19. ^


    Michael V, Grätz F, Huch V (2001). “Atomic number 269Othree(OCtwoHv)21•C2HfiveOH—A New Construction Type of an Uncharged Iron(III) Oxide-Alkoxide Cluster”.
    Eur. J. Inorg. Chem.
    2001
    (2): 367. doi:10.1002/1099-0682(200102)2001:two<367::AID-EJIC367>three.0.CO;ii-V.



  20. ^


    Seisenbaeva GA, Gohil S, Suslova EV, et al. (2005). “The synthesis of iron (Iii) ethoxide revisited: Characterization of the metathesis products of iron (Three) halides and sodium ethoxide”.
    Inorg. Chim. Acta.
    358
    (12): 3506–3512. doi:ten.1016/j.ica.2005.03.048.



  21. ^


    Berthold HJ, Spiegl HJ (1972). “Über die Bildung von Lithiumtetrachloroferrat(II) Li2FeCl4
    bei der Umsetzung von Eisen(III)-chlorid mil Lithiummethyl (ane:1) in ätherischer Lösung”.
    Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem.
    (in High german).
    391
    (three): 193–202. doi:10.1002/zaac.19723910302.



  22. ^



    Water Treatment Chemicals
    (PDF). Akzo Nobel Base Chemicals. 2007. Archived from the original
    (PDF)
    on 13 August 2010. Retrieved
    26 Oct
    2007
    .



  23. ^


    Park KH, Mohapatra D, Reddy BR (2006). “A report on the acidified ferric chloride leaching of a circuitous (Cu–Ni–Co–Iron) matte”.
    Separation and Purification Technology.
    51
    (three): 332–337. doi:10.1016/j.seppur.2006.02.013.



  24. ^


    Dueñas Díez Thou, Fjeld M, Andersen E, et al. (2006). “Validation of a compartmental population balance model of an industrial leaching procedure: The Silgrain process”.
    Chem. Eng. Sci.
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    (1): 229–245. doi:x.1016/j.ces.2005.01.047.



  25. ^


    Greenwood NN, Earnshaw A (1997).
    Chemistry of the Elements
    (2d ed.). Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. p. 1084. ISBN9780750633659.



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    Furniss BS, Hannaford AJ, Smith PW, et al. (1989).
    Vogel’southward Textbook of Practical Organic Chemical science
    (fifth ed.). New York: Longman/Wiley. ISBN9780582462366.



  27. ^


    Zhang SY, Huang ZP (2006). “A color test for rapid screening of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) in beverage and urine”.
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  28. ^


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  29. ^


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  30. ^


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    injured murine common carotid artery”.
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  31. ^


    Manohar, Aswin K.; Kim, Kyu Min; Plichta, Edward; Hendrickson, Mary; Rawlings, Sabrina; Narayanan, S. R. (28 October 2015). “A High Efficiency Fe-Chloride Redox Flow Bombardment for Large-Scale Energy Storage”.
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    “Listing of Minerals”.
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  36. ^


    Oeste, Franz Dietrich; de Richter, Renaud; Ming, Tingzhen; Caillol, Sylvain (January 13, 2017). “Climate engineering science by mimicking natural dust climate control: the iron salt aerosol method”.
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Further reading

[edit]

  1. Lide DR, ed. (1990).
    CRC Handbook of Chemical science and Physics
    (71st ed.). Ann Arbor, MI, The states: CRC Press. ISBN9780849304712.

  2. Stecher PG, Finkel MJ, Siegmund OH, eds. (1960).
    The Merck Index of Chemicals and Drugs
    (7th ed.). Rahway, NJ, USA: Merck & Co.

  3. Nicholls D (1974).
    Complexes and First-Row Transition Elements, Macmillan Press, London, 1973. A Macmillan chemistry text. London: Macmillan Press. ISBN9780333170885.

  4. Wells AF (1984).
    Structural Inorganic Chemistry. Oxford scientific discipline publications (5th ed.). Oxford, Great britain: Oxford University Press. ISBN9780198553700.

  5. March J (1992).
    Advanced Organic Chemistry
    (quaternary ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. pp. 723. ISBN9780471581482.

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    Acidic and Bones Reagents. Handbook of Reagents for Organic Synthesis. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN9780471979258.



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