Which Statement Describes the Influence of Latitude on Temperature
is the state of the atmosphere, describing for example the caste to which it is hot or cold, wet or dry, at-home or stormy, clear or cloudy.
On Globe, most weather phenomena occur in the lowest layer of the planet’s atmosphere, the troposphere,
merely below the stratosphere. Weather refers to 24-hour interval-to-24-hour interval temperature, precipitation, and other atmospheric weather condition, whereas climate is the term for the averaging of atmospheric weather condition over longer periods of time.
When used without qualification, “atmospheric condition” is generally understood to mean the weather of Earth.
Atmospheric condition is driven by air pressure, temperature, and moisture differences between 1 identify and another. These differences can occur due to the Lord’s day’s bending at any particular spot, which varies with latitude. The strong temperature contrast between polar and tropical air gives ascension to the largest scale atmospheric circulations: the Hadley cell, the Ferrel prison cell, the polar cell, and the jet stream. Atmospheric condition systems in the middle latitudes, such every bit extratropical cyclones, are caused by instabilities of the jet streamflow. Because Earth’s axis is tilted relative to its orbital plane (called the ecliptic), sunlight is incident at different angles at different times of the year. On Earth’s surface, temperatures usually range ±xl °C (−40 °F to 104 °F) annually. Over thousands of years, changes in Earth’s orbit tin can affect the amount and distribution of solar energy received by Earth, thus influencing long-term climate and global climate alter.
Surface temperature differences in turn cause pressure differences. College altitudes are cooler than lower altitudes, as most atmospheric heating is due to contact with the Globe’s surface while radiative losses to infinite are generally constant. Weather condition forecasting is the application of science and technology to predict the state of the atmosphere for a hereafter time and a given location. Globe’due south conditions system is a chaotic organization; as a result, small changes to i role of the system can grow to take large furnishings on the organisation every bit a whole. Homo attempts to control the weather have occurred throughout history, and there is evidence that man activities such every bit agriculture and industry have modified atmospheric condition patterns
Studying how the weather works on other planets has been helpful in agreement how weather works on Globe. A famous landmark in the Solar Organization, Jupiter’south Great Blood-red Spot, is an anticyclonic tempest known to accept existed for at to the lowest degree 300 years. However, the weather condition is non limited to planetary bodies. A star’southward corona is constantly existence lost to space, creating what is substantially a very thin temper throughout the Solar System. The movement of mass ejected from the Sun is known as the solar wind.
On Earth, the common weather phenomena include air current, cloud, rain, snowfall, fog and grit storms. Less common events include natural disasters such equally tornadoes, hurricanes, typhoons and water ice storms. Virtually all familiar weather phenomena occur in the troposphere (the lower part of the atmosphere).[iii]
Weather does occur in the stratosphere and can touch on weather lower downwardly in the troposphere, but the exact mechanisms are poorly understood.[v]
Conditions occurs primarily due to air pressure, temperature and moisture differences betwixt one place to some other. These differences can occur due to the lord’s day bending at whatsoever detail spot, which varies past breadth from the torrid zone. In other words, the farther from the tropics one lies, the lower the sunday angle is, which causes those locations to be cooler due to the spread of the sunlight over a greater surface.[six]
The strong temperature contrast between polar and tropical air gives rise to the large calibration atmospheric circulation cells and the jet stream.
Weather systems in the mid-latitudes, such as extratropical cyclones, are caused by instabilities of the jet stream flow (see baroclinity).
Weather systems in the tropics, such equally monsoons or organized thunderstorm systems, are caused past different processes.
Because the Earth’southward axis is tilted relative to its orbital airplane, sunlight is incident at unlike angles at different times of the yr. In June the Northern Hemisphere is tilted towards the dominicus, then at any given Northern Hemisphere latitude sunlight falls more than straight on that spot than in December (run across Upshot of sunday angle on climate).
This effect causes seasons. Over thousands to hundreds of thousands of years, changes in Earth’southward orbital parameters affect the corporeality and distribution of solar energy received past the Earth and influence long-term climate. (See Milankovitch cycles).[eleven]
The uneven solar heating (the formation of zones of temperature and wet gradients, or frontogenesis) can likewise be due to the atmospheric condition itself in the grade of cloudiness and precipitation.
Higher altitudes are typically libation than lower altitudes, which the result of college surface temperature and radiational heating, which produces the adiabatic lapse rate.
In some situations, the temperature actually increases with height. This phenomenon is known every bit an inversion and can cause mountaintops to be warmer than the valleys beneath. Inversions can atomic number 82 to the formation of fog and oft act equally a cap that suppresses thunderstorm evolution. On local scales, temperature differences can occur because different surfaces (such every bit oceans, forests, ice sheets, or homo-fabricated objects) have differing physical characteristics such as reflectivity, roughness, or wet content.
Surface temperature differences in turn cause pressure differences. A hot surface warms the air higher up it causing it to expand and lower the density and the resulting surface air pressure.
The resulting horizontal pressure slope moves the air from college to lower force per unit area regions, creating a wind, and the World’due south rotation then causes deflection of this airflow due to the Coriolis consequence.[xvi]
The simple systems thus formed tin then brandish emergent behaviour to produce more than complex systems and thus other weather phenomena. Large scale examples include the Hadley jail cell while a smaller scale example would be coastal breezes.
The temper is a chaotic arrangement. As a result, small changes to one part of the system tin can accumulate and magnify to cause large furnishings on the system as a whole.
This atmospheric instability makes conditions forecasting less predictable than tides or eclipses.
Although it is difficult to accurately predict weather more than a few days in advance, atmospheric condition forecasters are continually working to extend this limit through meteorological research and refining current methodologies in conditions prediction. However, it is theoretically impossible to make useful day-to-twenty-four hours predictions more than nigh two weeks ahead, imposing an upper limit to potential for improved prediction skill.
Shaping the planet Earth
Weather condition is one of the fundamental processes that shape the Earth. The process of weathering breaks downwardly the rocks and soils into smaller fragments and and so into their constituent substances.[xx]
During rains precipitation, the water droplets absorb and dissolve carbon dioxide from the surrounding air. This causes the rainwater to exist slightly acidic, which aids the erosive properties of h2o. The released sediment and chemicals are and so complimentary to accept function in chemic reactions that can affect the surface further (such as acid pelting), and sodium and chloride ions (table salt) deposited in the seas/oceans. The sediment may reform in fourth dimension and by geological forces into other rocks and soils. In this way, weather plays a major role in erosion of the surface.
Effect on humans
Weather condition, seen from an anthropological perspective, is something all humans in the earth constantly feel through their senses, at to the lowest degree while being outside. In that location are socially and scientifically constructed understandings of what weather is, what makes it modify, the effect it has on humans in different situations, etc.
Therefore, conditions is something people often communicate about. The National Weather Service has an almanac written report for fatalities, injury, and total impairment costs which include crop and belongings. They get together this data via National Weather Service offices located throughout the 50 states in the United states too as Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Virgin Islands. As of 2019, tornadoes have had the greatest impact on humans with 42 fatalities while costing ingather and property damage over 3 billion dollars.
Effects on populations
The weather has played a large and sometimes direct part in human history. Aside from climatic changes that take acquired the gradual migrate of populations (for example the desertification of the Center Due east, and the formation of country bridges during glacial periods), farthermost weather events have caused smaller calibration population movements and intruded directly in historical events. 1 such consequence is the saving of Japan from invasion by the Mongol fleet of Kublai Khan by the Kamikaze winds in 1281.
French claims to Florida came to an end in 1565 when a hurricane destroyed the French fleet, assuasive Spain to conquer Fort Caroline.
More recently, Hurricane Katrina redistributed over one million people from the central Gulf coast elsewhere across the U.s.a., becoming the largest diaspora in the history of the U.s..
The Piddling Water ice Age caused crop failures and famines in Europe. During the period known as the Grindelwald Fluctuation (1560-1630), volcanic forcing events
seem to have led to more extreme atmospheric condition events.
These included droughts, storms and unseasonal blizzards, as well as causing the Swiss Grindelwald Glacier to expand. The 1690s saw the worst famine in France since the Middle Ages. Republic of finland suffered a severe famine in 1696–1697, during which about 1-third of the Finnish population died.
Atmospheric condition forecasting is the application of science and technology to predict the land of the atmosphere for a future fourth dimension and a given location. Human beings have attempted to predict the weather informally for millennia, and formally since at least the nineteenth century.
Weather forecasts are made by collecting quantitative data about the current state of the atmosphere and using scientific agreement of atmospheric processes to project how the atmosphere will evolve.
In one case an all-homo endeavor based mainly upon changes in barometric pressure level, electric current weather atmospheric condition, and heaven condition,
forecast models are now used to determine time to come atmospheric condition. On the other hand, human input is all the same required to choice the best possible forecast model to base the forecast upon, which involve many disciplines such as pattern recognition skills, teleconnections, knowledge of model performance, and knowledge of model biases.
The chaotic nature of the atmosphere, the massive computational power required to solve the equations that describe the temper, the mistake involved in measuring the initial weather condition, and an incomplete agreement of atmospheric processes mean that forecasts get less accurate as of the divergence in current fourth dimension and the fourth dimension for which the forecast is being made (the
of the forecast) increases. The employ of ensembles and model consensus helps to narrow the fault and option the near likely event.
In that location are a variety of end users to conditions forecasts. Weather condition warnings are important forecasts considering they are used to protect life and property.
Forecasts based on temperature and precipitation are important to agronomics,
and therefore to commodity traders inside stock markets. Temperature forecasts are used past utility companies to estimate demand over coming days.
In some areas, people utilise weather condition forecasts to decide what to wear on a given day. Since outdoor activities are severely curtailed by heavy rain, snow and the air current chill, forecasts can be used to program activities around these events and to plan ahead to survive through them.
Tropical weather forecasting is different from that at higher latitudes. The sun shines more directly on the tropics than on higher latitudes (at least in the boilerplate over a year), which makes the torrid zone warm (Stevens 2011). And, the vertical direction (up, every bit one stands on the Earth’s surface) is perpendicular to the Globe’s axis of rotation at the equator, while the axis of rotation and the vertical are the aforementioned at the pole; this causes the Earth’due south rotation to influence the atmospheric apportionment more strongly at high latitudes than low. Considering of these ii factors, clouds and rainstorms in the torrid zone can occur more spontaneously compared to those at higher latitudes, where they are more tightly controlled by larger-scale forces in the temper. Considering of these differences, clouds and rain are more hard to forecast in the tropics than at higher latitudes. On the other manus, the temperature is hands forecast in the torrid zone, considering it doesn’t change much.
The aspiration to control the weather is axiomatic throughout human history: from ancient rituals intended to bring pelting for crops to the U.Southward. War machine Operation Popeye, an effort to disrupt supply lines by lengthening the N Vietnamese monsoon. The most successful attempts at influencing atmospheric condition involve cloud seeding; they include the fog- and low stratus dispersion techniques employed by major airports, techniques used to increase wintertime precipitation over mountains, and techniques to suppress hail.
A contempo example of weather control was China’s preparation for the 2008 Summer Olympic Games. Cathay shot 1,104 rain dispersal rockets from 21 sites in the urban center of Beijing in an effort to keep rain away from the opening anniversary of the games on 8 Baronial 2008. Guo Hu, head of the Beijing Municipal Meteorological Bureau (BMB), confirmed the success of the functioning with 100 millimeters falling in Baoding City of Hebei Province, to the southwest and Beijing’s Fangshan District recording a rainfall of 25 millimeters.
Whereas there is inconclusive evidence for these techniques’ efficacy, there is extensive evidence that human being activity such every bit agriculture and manufacture results in inadvertent weather condition modification:
- Acid rain, caused by industrial emission of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides into the atmosphere, adversely affects freshwater lakes, vegetation, and structures.
- Anthropogenic pollutants reduce air quality and visibility.
- Climate change acquired past human activities that emit greenhouse gases into the air is expected to affect the frequency of extreme weather events such as drought, extreme temperatures, flooding, loftier winds, and severe storms.
- Heat, generated past large metropolitan areas have been shown to minutely bear on nearby conditions, even at distances equally far as ane,600 kilometres (990 mi).[fifty]
The effects of inadvertent weather modification may pose serious threats to many aspects of civilization, including ecosystems, natural resources, food and fiber production, economic development, and man health.
Microscale meteorology is the report of curt-lived atmospheric phenomena smaller than mesoscale, most 1 km or less. These 2 branches of meteorology are sometimes grouped together as “mesoscale and microscale meteorology” (MMM) and together report all phenomena smaller than synoptic scale; that is they study features generally too pocket-size to be depicted on a weather map. These include small and generally fleeting cloud “puffs” and other small-scale deject features.
Extremes on Globe
On Earth, temperatures usually range ±40 °C (100 °F to −40 °F) annually. The range of climates and latitudes beyond the planet can offer extremes of temperature exterior this range. The coldest air temperature ever recorded on Earth is −89.2 °C (−128.half dozen °F), at Vostok Station, Antarctica on 21 July 1983. The hottest air temperature ever recorded was 57.7 °C (135.9 °F) at ‘Aziziya, Libya, on thirteen September 1922,
only that reading is queried. The highest recorded average almanac temperature was 34.four °C (93.9 °F) at Dallol, Ethiopia.
The coldest recorded average annual temperature was −55.i °C (−67.2 °F) at Vostok Station, Antarctica.
The coldest average annual temperature in a permanently inhabited location is at Eureka, Nunavut, in Canada, where the almanac average temperature is −19.7 °C (−3.5 °F).
The windiest place ever recorded is in Antarctica, Commonwealth Bay (George 5 Coast).[
Hither the gales achieve 199 mph (320 km/h).[
Furthermore, the greatest snowfall in a period of twelve months occurred in Mount Rainier, Washington, USA. Information technology was recorded as 31,102 mm (102.04 ft) of snow.
Studying how the atmospheric condition works on other planets has been seen as helpful in agreement how information technology works on Earth.
Weather on other planets follows many of the same physical principles as weather on Globe, but occurs on dissimilar scales and in atmospheres having different chemical composition. The
mission to Titan discovered clouds formed from methane or ethane which deposit rain equanimous of liquid methane and other organic compounds.
Earth’southward atmosphere includes six latitudinal circulation zones, three in each hemisphere.
In contrast, Jupiter’s banded advent shows many such zones,
Titan has a single jet stream near the 50th parallel n latitude,
and Venus has a single jet near the equator.
One of the most famous landmarks in the Solar Arrangement, Jupiter’s Great Red Spot, is an anticyclonic tempest known to have existed for at least 300 years.
On other gas giants, the lack of a surface allows the current of air to reach enormous speeds: gusts of up to 600 metres per 2d (most 2,100 km/h or 1,300 mph) have been measured on the planet Neptune.
This has created a puzzle for planetary scientists. The weather is ultimately created by solar energy and the amount of free energy received by Neptune is just about
of that received past Earth, yet the intensity of weather phenomena on Neptune is far greater than on Earth.
The strongest planetary winds discovered so far are on the extrasolar planet HD 189733 b, which is idea to have easterly winds moving at more than nine,600 kilometres per hour (half-dozen,000 mph).
Weather is non limited to planetary bodies. Like all stars, the Sun’s corona is constantly being lost to space, creating what is substantially a very thin atmosphere throughout the Solar Arrangement. The movement of mass ejected from the Sun is known every bit the solar air current. Inconsistencies in this wind and larger events on the surface of the star, such as coronal mass ejections, course a system that has features coordinating to conventional conditions systems (such equally pressure and wind) and is by and large known equally space conditions. Coronal mass ejections have been tracked as far out in the Solar Arrangement as Saturn.
The activeness of this system can affect planetary atmospheres and occasionally surfaces. The interaction of the solar wind with the terrestrial atmosphere can produce spectacular aurorae,[lxx]
and tin can play havoc with electrically sensitive systems such equally electricity grids and radio signals.
- Glossary of meteorology
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- Weather of 2021
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Which Statement Describes the Influence of Latitude on Temperature