During the Renaissance People Began to Question

During the Renaissance People Began to Question

Mr. Giotto’s Online Textbook » The Renaissance

The Renaissance
The Renaissance


The Renaissance
1350-1550

The Renaissance began in the city-states of Italian republic in the mid-1300s. The city-state of Florence is considered the birthplace of the Renaissance, which ways “rebirth” in French. During this time, Italians, living closer to the Middle Eastward and Greece, were introduced to classic literature and philosophy, like the
Iliad
and the
Odyssey, as well as the works of ancient philosophers similar Plato. These texts were preserved by the Byzantines and Arabs of the Center East.

Humanism was born during the Renaissance. The Centre Ages had always been an age of religion and fate. Now, later reading the ancient philosophers, some people in Italy began to recall that peachy things were possible through private achievement, this is what is called the Humanist move. Francesco Petrarch was an early humanist who studied the ancient texts for inspiration. Humanism allowed arts and literature to achieve new heights during this time.

Italian

Italian metropolis-states, AD 1491

Giotto

Giotto’southward
Adoration of the Magi

One of the most of import achievements of the Renaissance was the promotion of the arts. Wealthy businessmen became patrons and supported the efforts of various artists. During the early Renaissance, the painter Giotto (1266-1337) used perspective (shading) to create life-like paintings. Earlier Giotto, the Byzantine, ii-dimensional way was the norm. Although these paintings await lifeless, it was the religious message behind the painting that was considered important, not the art. Giotto rejected this idea and painted it with realism. Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, and Michelangelo would follow Giotto and are the best-known artists from this period.

Feudalism began to crumble during the Late Middle Ages, equally strong kings seized power from their vassals. The Black Plague had wiped out many of the vassals, and their power weakened. Rex Ferdinand of Aragon married Queen Isabella of Castile, uniting the two kingdoms into one super-kingdom of Espana. In France, King Louis Eleven divided and conquered his vassals, while in England, out of the ashes of the Wars of the Roses, Henry Tudor united the Houses of York and Lancaster. Knowing that the English people sought peace, Henry married off his sons and daughters to the ruling families of other countries, including Scotland and Kingdom of spain. People began to leave feudal lands, heading to cities where they formed guilds. A guild is a grouping of people who do the same type of work, similar making apparel.

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The Roman Catholic Church as well began to lose its power every bit church officials bickered. At one point at that place were fifty-fifty ii popes at the same time, each one challenge to be the truthful Pope. During the Renaissance, men began to challenge some of the practices of the Roman Catholic Church. An Englishman, named John Wycliffe, was one of the early challengers. Wycliffe felt the Church should be poor, like the early apostles of Jesus. Wycliffe besides believed that the Bible should be translated into English, so people could understand its bulletin.

Wycliffe’s reforms made piffling difference, but in the early 16th century, a man named Martin Luther changed the Church forever. Luther, a Roman Catholic priest in Frg, posted 95 poor practices of the church on the door of a church in Frg. This document was called the 95 theses and was meant to point out how the Church could exist improved. One of the problems he saw was the selling of indulgences. An indulgence is a pardon or forgiveness for a sin that a person has committed. Pope Leo X at the time was selling indulgences to raise money to build a chiliad new church building in Rome. An advance in applied science that helped to spread the message of Martin Luther was the invention of the moveable-type printing press past Johannes Gutenberg. Gutenberg, a German, created the press that used movable type pieces for characters, rather than woodcuts of entire pages that had been used in presses in the past. Moveable-blazon made books faster and these books were less expensive than books made from woodcuts.

The Reformation

Martin Luther started a movement called the Reformation. Many people tried to reform the Church during the 1500s. When Pope Leo X ordered Luther’s writings burned, many people sided with Luther and decided to break away from the Roman Catholic Church building. These break-away Christians are called Protestants because they were protesting the practices of the Catholic Organized religion. All Protestants have i thing in common, they refuse to follow the Pope. Lutherans are the Protestant group that follows the teachings of Martin Luther. The Protestant movement divided Western European Christians into Catholic and Protestant. Wars followed betwixt Catholic and Protestant nations, as well as attempts to convert the people of the New Globe to each type of religion. The discovery of the New Globe by Europeans was a result of exploring and sailing to detect faster and safer trade routes to Asia than the long and dangerous country routes. The most successful movement past Catholics to finish the tide of the Reformation was chosen the Jesuit movement. The Jesuits spread the Catholic organized religion to people in Asia and Latin America. The Jesuits withal exist today, Mcquaid High Schoolhouse, in Rochester, is a Jesuit school.

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The ideas of the Renaissance arrived last to England, but following the Reformation, Rex Henry VIII of England decided to break away from the Cosmic Church, creating the Anglican (English language) Church. Henry believed in a national church without interference from the Pope in Rome. The Pope at the time refused to grant Henry Viii the divorce he needed from his first wife, Catherine of Aragon, to remarry, in hopes of having a son and heir to the throne. Had it not been for Martin Luther and the Protestant movement, we are left to wonder whether Henry VIII would have been so bold as to have England exit the Catholic faith, and brand an enemy of Espana, the powerful Cosmic land of his first married woman.

England’s writer, William Shakespeare, contributed great works during the Renaissance. His plays and poems are still read today and form the ground of many modern movie themes. Shakespeare wrote in the tardily 1500s and early 1600s, during the time of England’s Queen Elizabeth I, Henry 8’due south daughter.
Romeo and Juliet
may exist his most recognizable play.

Copernicus

Copernicus’ Heliocentric Theory

Views on scientific discipline were besides changing during the Renaissance. The Cosmic Church building had ever accepted the findings of the ancient Hellenistic Greek named Ptolemy, that the earth was the eye of the universe, and all the planets, moon, Lord’s day, and stars revolve around the stationary earth. This theory is called the geocentric, or earth-centered, theory. Nicolas Copernicus (from Poland) challenged this theory, he was convinced that the planets, including earth, revolved around the sun, and that the world spun in its axis. Knowing that his findings would be unpopular, Copernicus waited until he was dying to publish his work called
On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres
in 1543. In the 1600s, a man named Galileo, using a telescope saw that the planet Venus showed phases similar to the moon, proving that it revolved effectually the Sun. This supported Copernicus’ Heliocentric, or Dominicus-centered, theory. For his findings, Galileo was sent to prison.

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One important fact to consider apropos the Renaissance is that only the wealthy took part in the advances and learning of the time; for the poor and the bulk of people, life continued on every bit information technology e’er had, with people working hard, with piddling time or money to enjoy the benefits of art and literature.

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During the Renaissance People Began to Question

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