Which Are Un Millennium Development Goals Select Four Answers

Which Are Un Millennium Development Goals Select Four Answers

two.ane What are the Millennium Evolution Goals (MDGs)?

The MDGs have been described as ‘the world’s biggest promise’ to stop poverty (Hulme 2007). First set out in 2001, following the Millennium Declaration of the United nations Millennium Associates in September 2000, the MDGs are a global framework to shape the planning and monitoring of development efforts, particularly in low income and developing countries. They suggest that such countries should strive to achieve a number of quantified goals to reduce farthermost poverty, illness, and impecuniousness by 2015.

2.1.ane MDGs, targets and indicators

This is an overview of the eight MDGs, targets and a selection of important indicators. The original list of MDGs equally adopted in 2001 are presented in normal font. The 4 new targets and associated indicators, added in 2006-2007, are presented in italics.

  1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
  2. Target 1A: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than $1 a day

    Target 1B: Attain full and productive employment and decent work for all, including women and young people (added in 2007)

    Target 1C: Halve, betwixt 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger

    Selected key indicators (responsibilities for monitoring in brackets):

    • Proportion of population below $one (PPP) per day (World Bank)
    • Poverty gap ratio (Globe Banking concern)
    • Share of poorest quintile in national consumption (Globe Bank)
    • Prevalence of underweight children under 5 years of historic period (WHO/UNICEF)
    • Share of population below minimum level of dietary free energy consumption (FAO)
    • Employment-to-population ratio
    • Proportion of employed people living beneath $i (PPP) per solar day

  3. Accomplish universal chief education
  4. Target 2: Ensure that, past 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full grade of primary schooling

    Selected primal indicators (all monitored by UNESCO):

    • Cyberspace enrolment ratio in primary didactics
    • Proportion of pupils starting grade 1 who achieve grade 5
    • Literacy charge per unit of 15-24-year-olds, women and men

  5. Promote gender equality and empower women
  6. Target 3: Eliminate gender disparity in chief and secondary education preferably past 2005 and in all levels of didactics no later on than 2015

    Selected key indicators (responsibilities for monitoring in brackets):

    • Ratio of girls to boys in main, secondary, and tertiary didactics (UNESCO)
    • Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector (ILO)
    • Proportion of seats held past women in national parliament (IPU)

  7. Reduce child mortality
  8. Target 4: Reduce by two-thirds, betwixt 1990 and 2015, the under-v mortality rate

    Selected key indicators (all monitored by WHO/UNICEF):

    • Under-five mortality charge per unit
    • Infant mortality rate
    • Proportion of i year-onetime children immunized confronting measles

  9. Amend maternal wellness
  10. Target 5A: Reduce by three-quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio

    Target 5B: Reach, by 2015, universal access to reproductive wellness (added in 2007)

    Selected key indicators (all monitored past WHO/UNICEF):

    • Maternal mortality ratio
    • Contraceptive prevalence rate
    • Boyish birth rate

  11. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
  12. Target 6A: Take halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS

    Target 6B: Reach by 2010 universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for all those who need it (added in 2007)

    Target 6C: Take halted past 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other diseases

    Selected key indicators (responsibilities for monitoring in brackets):

    • HIV prevalence amid fifteen-24-year old pregnant women (UNAIDS, WHO, UNICEF)
    • Ratio of orphans to not-orphans anile x-14 who are attending school (UNAIDS, WHO, UNICEF)
    • Prevalence and death rates associated with malaria (WHO)
    • Prevalence and death rates associated with tuberculosis
    • Proportion of population with advanced HIV infection with access to antiretroviral drugs

  13. Ensure environmental sustainability
  14. Target 7A: Integrate the principles of sustainable evolution into land policies and programmes; reverse loss of environmental resources

    Target 7B: Significantly reduce the loss of biodiversity by 2010 (added in 2007)

    Target 7C: Reduce past half the proportion of people without sustainable admission to safety drinking water

    Target 7D: Achieve pregnant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers, by 2020

    Selected key indicators (responsibilities for monitoring in brackets):

    • Proportion of country surface area covered by forest (FAO)
    • Ratio of area protected to maintain biological diversity to area (UNEP-IUCN)
    • GDP per unit of energy utilisation (UNSD, IAEA, World Banking concern)
    • Proportion of population with sustainable access to improved water source, urban and rural (WHO, UNICEF)
    • Proportion of urban population with access to improved sanitation (WHO, UNICEF)
    • Proportion of households with access to secure tenure (HABITAT)

  15. Develop a global partnership for development
  16. Target 8A: Develop further an open, dominion-based, anticipated, non-discriminatory trading and financial system

    Target 8B: Accost the special needs of the least adult countries

    Target 8C: Address the special needs of landlocked countries and pocket-size island developing states

    Target 8D: Bargain comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries

    Target 8E: In co-operation with pharmaceutical companies, provide admission to affordable essential drugs in developing countries

    Target 8F: In co-operation with the private sector, make bachelor the benefits of new technologies, particularly data and communications

    Selected key indicators (responsibilities for monitoring in brackets):

    • Proportion of total bilateral, sector-allocatable official evolution aid (ODA) to bones social services
    • Proportion of total developed country imports from developing countries and LDCs, admitted complimentary of duties
    • Average tariffs imposed by developed countries on agricultural products and textiles and habiliment from developing countries
    • Agronomical support estimate for OECD countries as percentage of their Gdp
    • Proportion of population with access to affordable essential drugs on a sustainable basis (WHO)
    • Personal computers in employ per 100 population and internet users per 100 population (ITU)
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Source: a full list of indicators can exist accessed at Un (undated)

Exercise you think the MDGs comprehend all the most important aspects of poverty? If non, what is missing?

1 observation is that no mention is made about the political dimension of poverty, including power relations and the exclusion of poor groups from decision-making processes. Notwithstanding, it is often the lack of these rights which hinder the poorest from accessing services or benefiting from growth processes taking place within their economy.

The MDGs also make no mention of climate change or social protection. Back in 2000, there was much less international awareness of the importance of these problems than there is today.

How and why the MDGs emerged

Hulme (2007) documents the procedure by which the MDGs were adult and ultimately agreed by UN fellow member nations. The story has elements of vision, organisational power struggles, individual contributions, and chance.

In terms of organisations, Hulme (2007) highlights the contributions of the following players.

  • Various UN agencies, responsible for organising a number of thematic summits, for example, on Children, Women, and on Social Development in the early on 1990s. These were an attempt to reassert the influence of the United nations organisation inside international development debates post-obit a decade (the 1980s) dominated by the Imf and the World Bank. Several of these summits produced targets and indicators for progress in their areas, which later fed into the compilation of the MDGs.
  • The Development Help Committee (DAC) of the OECD, which attempts to enhance aid efforts of donor countries. In the mid-1990s the DAC was becoming increasingly concerned at the declines in aid budgets in many developed countries. This reflected the relative neglect of international evolution past a number of correct-fly governments and, at to the lowest degree in the United states, the sense that development assistance had go less of import as a foreign policy tool following the end of the Common cold War. In 1996, the DAC produced a list of vii International Evolution Goals as a way of renewing the involvement of donor governments in, and commitment of these governments to, development assistance.
  • The UN Secretariat, which seized the political opportunity provided by the new millennium to renew commitment to international development efforts.
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As already noted, during the 1990s there was a growing consensus that poverty reduction should be the ultimate goal of international evolution efforts. The United nations summits and the DAC International Development Goals, which preceded the MDGs, both drew from and contributed to this consensus. Nevertheless, there remained debates and struggles. Thus:

  • The UN summits sought to reassert a man development agenda, linked to human rights, equally an alternative to the economic growth focus of the International monetary fund and Globe Banking concern.
  • The DAC International Development Goals fastened relatively greater weight to economic growth (whilst still acknowledging that poverty reduction efforts had to become beyond this), reflecting the need to entreatment to sceptical governments in developed countries.

These tensions were just finally resolved after the passing of the Millennium Declaration in New York in September 2000. The economic development goal (halving the number of people living in extreme poverty, divers in terms of a daily consumption level) was made goal 1, complemented by seven others that reflected broader understandings of poverty.

The procedure of moving from a commitment to the overarching goal of poverty reduction at the Millennium Summit to development targets and indicators besides involved the sharing out of responsibility for monitoring the diverse indicators amongst multilateral development agencies. The Globe Banking concern was given responsibility for the income/consumption target within MDG ane, whilst the others were generally shared out amid a number of Un agencies (see ii.1.1).

Co-ordinate to Hulme (2007)

‘to a high degree developing countries have been followers not leaders of the process of MDG development. … The lack of fuller engagement of G77 with the development of the MDGs remains a cause for business organisation…’

Source: Hulme (2007) p. 38.

In fact, the chief involvement of developing countries in the process of MDG development came from sure Islamic countries that were successful in lobbying – forth with the Vatican – confronting the inclusion of reproductive health targets in the MDGs. Interestingly, in 2007, the Full general Assembly of the UN decided to add reproductive health to the original MDG targets.

There is continued contend over how well the MDGs capture the aspirations of developing countries. Because the MDGs were fix by a political process at a global level, it can be questioned how far policy-makers and populations of partner countries have felt any ownership of the specific quantified targets and indicators used to monitor progress towards the MDGs.

This sense of ownership has varied from land to country. Have policy-makers in your country (or a country with which yous are familiar) shown delivery to achieving the MDGs as appropriate goals for them?

Which Are Un Millennium Development Goals Select Four Answers

Source: https://www.soas.ac.uk/cedep-demos/000_P519_UP_K3736-Demo/unit1/page_13.htm