Which Aspect of the Scientific Method Occurs First

Which Aspect of the Scientific Method Occurs First

Psychology and the Scientific Method: From Theory to Conclusion

The scientific method offers a standardized way for psychologists to test hypotheses, build on theories, and gain cognition about the mind.

Learning Objectives

Defend each step of the scientific method as necessary to psychological research

Key Takeaways

Cardinal Points

  • The scientific method was first outlined by Sir Francis Bacon (1561-1626) to provide logical, rational problem solving across many scientific fields.
  • The basic steps of the scientific method are: i) make an observation that describes a trouble, 2) create a hypothesis, iii) exam the hypothesis, and 4) describe conclusions and refine the hypothesis.
  • The major precepts of the scientific method employed by all scientific disciplines are verifiability, predictability, falsifiability, and fairness.
  • The awarding of the scientific theory to psychology took the discipline from a form of philosophy to a form of science.
  • Disquisitional thinking is a cardinal component of the scientific method. Without it, yous cannot use logic to come up to conclusions.

Key Terms

  • social science: Sciences concerned with the social behavior of individuals and groups (e.g., sociology, anthropology, or psychology) and that are often considered more subjective due to the focus of written report.
  • scientific method: A method of discovering knowledge about the natural world based on making falsifiable predictions (hypotheses), testing them empirically, and developing peer-reviewed theories that best explain the known data.
  • natural science: Sciences concerned with predicting and describing natural phenomena (e.g., biology, physics, or chemistry), using systematic data collection and performing controlled experiments.

All scientific disciplines are united by their utilise of the scientific method. The scientific method offers an objective methodology for scientific experimentation that results in unbiased interpretations of the world and refines knowledge. The scientific method was starting time outlined by Sir Francis Bacon (1561–1626) and allows for logical, rational problem solving across many scientific fields. Beyond all scientific disciplines, the major precepts of the scientific method are verifiability, predictability, falsifiability, and fairness.

The Scientific Method: The scientific method is a procedure for gathering data and processing information. It provides well-divers steps to standardize how scientific noesis is gathered through a logical, rational problem-solving method. This diagram shows the steps of the scientific method, which are listed below.

The Basic Principles of the Scientific Method

Two key concepts  in the scientific approach are theory and hypothesis. A theory is used to make predictions about hereafter observations. A hypothesis is a testable prediction that is arrived at logically from a theory.

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Several types of studies be within the scientific method— experiments, descriptive studies, case studies, surveys, and non-descriptive studies. In an experiment a researcher manipulates certain variables and measures their upshot on other variables in a controlled environment. Descriptive studies describe the nature of the human relationship between the intended variables, without looking at crusade or effect. A case study covers one specific example in which something unusual has occurred. This is oft washed in farthermost or rare cases, usually with a single discipline. Surveys are used with large groups of people who answer questions about specific subjects. Not-descriptive studies use correlational methods to predict the relationship between two (or more ) intended variables.

Verifiability means that an experiment must be replicable by another researcher. To attain verifiability, researchers must make sure to document their methods and clearly explain how their experiment is structured and why information technology produces certain results.

Predictability in a scientific theory implies that the theory should enable u.s. to make predictions about futurity events. The precision of these predictions is a mensurate of the strength of the theory.

Falsifiability refers to whether a hypothesis tin disproved. For a hypothesis to be falsifiable, it must be logically possible to make an observation or practise a physical experiment that would show that at that place is no support for the hypothesis. Fifty-fifty when a hypothesis cannot be shown to be false, that does not necessarily mean it is not valid. Hereafter testing may disprove the hypothesis. This does not mean that a hypothesis
to be shown to exist imitation, just that it can be tested.

To determine whether a hypothesis is supported or not supported, psychological researchers must deport hypothesis testing using statistics. Hypothesis testing is a type of statistics that determines the probability of a hypothesis being true or imitation. If hypothesis testing reveals that results were “statistically pregnant,” this means that there was support for the hypothesis and that the researchers can exist reasonably confident that their result was non due to random hazard. If the results are not statistically significant, this means that the researchers’ hypothesis was not supported.

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Fairness implies that all information must be considered when evaluating a hypothesis. A researcher cannot selection and choose what data to continue and what to discard or focus specifically on data that support or practise not back up a particular hypothesis. All data must be deemed for, even if they invalidate the hypothesis.

The Bones Steps of the Scientific Method

The basic steps in the scientific method are:

  • Observe a natural phenomenon and define a question about it
  • Brand a hypothesis, or potential solution to the question
  • Test the hypothesis
  • If the hypothesis is true, find more show or notice counter-prove
  • If the hypothesis is false, create a new hypothesis or try again
  • Describe conclusions and echo–the scientific method is never-catastrophe, and no result is ever considered perfect

In order to ask an of import question that may better our understanding of the world, a researcher must first observe natural phenomena. Past making observations, a researcher can define a useful question. After finding a question to answer, the researcher tin then make a prediction (a hypothesis) nearly what he or she thinks the respond volition be. This prediction is normally a statement most the relationship between two or more variables. Later on making a hypothesis, the researcher will then design an experiment to test his or her hypothesis and evaluate the data gathered. These data will either back up or abnegate the hypothesis. Based on the conclusions drawn from the data, the researcher will then find more show to back up the hypothesis, wait for counter-evidence to further strengthen the hypothesis, revise the hypothesis and create a new experiment, or continue to comprise the data gathered to reply the research question.

Example of the Scientific Method

To improve understand the process of the scientific method, take a look at the following example:

  • Observation: My toaster doesn’t piece of work.
  • Question: Is something wrong with my electrical outlet?
  • Hypothesis: If something is wrong with the outlet, my coffeemaker also won’t work when plugged into it.
  • Experiment: I plug my coffeemaker into the outlet.
  • Result: My coffeemaker works!
  • Conclusion: My electric outlet works, but my toaster nevertheless won’t toast my bread.
  • Refine the hypothesis: My toaster is cleaved.
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From this signal, the procedure would be repeated with a refined hypothesis.

Why the Scientific Method Is Important for Psychology

The utilize of the scientific method is i of the main features that separates modern psychology from before philosophical inquiries about the mind. Compared to chemistry, physics, and other “natural sciences,” psychology has long been considered ane of the “social sciences” because of the subjective nature of the things it seeks to report. Many of the concepts that psychologists are interested in—such as aspects of the human being mind, behavior, and emotions—are subjective and cannot be directly measured. Psychologists often rely instead on behavioral observations and cocky-reported data, which are considered by some to be illegitimate or lacking in methodological rigor. Applying the scientific method to psychology, therefore, helps to standardize the approach to understanding its very different types of information.

The scientific method allows psychological data to exist replicated and confirmed in many instances, nether different circumstances, and by a diversity of researchers. Through replication of experiments, new generations of psychologists can reduce errors and broaden the applicability of theories. It also allows theories to be tested and validated instead of but being conjectures that could never be verified or falsified. All of this allows psychologists to gain a stronger agreement of how the human mind works.

Scientific articles published in journals and psychology papers written in the style of the American Psychological Association (i.e., in “APA style”) are structured around the scientific method. These papers include an Introduction, which introduces the background information and outlines the hypotheses; a Methods department, which outlines the specifics of how the experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis; a Results section, which includes the statistics that tested the hypothesis and state whether it was supported or non supported, and a Discussion and Conclusion, which state the implications of finding back up for, or no support for, the hypothesis. Writing articles and papers that attach to the scientific method makes it easy for hereafter researchers to echo the study and attempt to replicate the results.

Which Aspect of the Scientific Method Occurs First

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