Which of the Following is Not an Anxiety Disorder

Which of the Following is Not an Anxiety Disorder

Classification of Anxiety Disorder

Comorbidity of addictive problems: Assessment and handling implications

Cecilia A.
Essau
, in


Boyish Addiction (2d Edition), 2020

xi.2.2

Comorbidity between SUD and anxiety disorders

Anxiety disorders are amid the most common psychiatric disorders in the general population, affecting up to 20% of adolescents. Anxiety disorders tend to be more common among females than males (Essau, Lewinsohn, Olaya, & Seeley, 2014). Adolescents meeting the criteria of feet disorders have been described as generally withdrawn, fearful of situations or objects, afraid of being in a social situation, and are inhibited (APA, 2013
). In DSM-5, there have been some changes in the
classification of anxiety disorders. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (included in the obsessive-compulsive and related disorders), acute stress disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder (included in the trauma and stress-related disorders) are no longer considered anxiety disorders in DSM-v. Anxiety disorders which normally occur in adolescents include social phobia (i.eastward., an irrational fear of being judged in social situations), specific phobia (i.east., a fearfulness of specific objects or situations), generalized anxiety disorder (i.e., excessive and uncontrollable worry most life events), and panic disorder (i.e., discrete fear attacks that are associated with cognitive and physical symptoms).

Of all the feet disorders, social feet disorder is the one that most commonly co-occurs with AUD, with about 13% of those with social feet disorder having AUD (Buckner, Heimberg, Ecker, & Vinci, 2013;
Schneier et al., 2010). Information technology is estimated that eighty% of the comorbid cases had social feet disorder earlier AUD; the presence of social anxiety disorder at baseline is associated with four times the odds of having AUD at follow-up (Schneier et al., 2010). Some authors consider drug consumption equally a “means to an cease” (Bulley, Miloyan, Brilot, Gullo, & Suddendorf, 2016, p. 64) such as managing a social state of affairs. Indeed, one of the motivations to drink among individuals with social anxiety disorder is to provide relief or to reduce tension that arises in social situations and to facilitate social interactions. For instance, a study past
Battista, MacDonald, and Stewart (2012)
showed that participants with social anxiety disorder spoke longer with an interaction partner after drinking alcohol; the interaction partner as well showed more positive social behavior to participants with social anxiety disorder who drank alcohol compared to those who consumed a nonalcoholic beverage.

Well-nigh of the studies in comorbidity betwixt SUD and anxiety disorders were conducted in Western countries. These findings, while informative, may not exist generalizable to adolescents in non-Western countries. To make up this gap,
Stapinski, Montgomery, and Araya (2016)
conducted a written report among adolescents in Chile to examine the extent to which low, generalized anxiety, social anxiety, and panic symptoms independently predict new cases of cannabis use as well as to predict the frequency of use 18 months after. The findings showed a high comorbidity among the various types of substances such as between cannabis, tobacco, and alcohol utilise frequency. After adjusting for the employ of cannabis at baseline, generalized feet, panic, and depressive symptoms were associated with a college frequency of cannabis use 18 months afterward. However, afterward because all predictors simultaneously, merely generalized anxiety symptoms were independently associated with the frequency of subsequent cannabis use. Their finding also showed that amongst adolescents with high levels of generalized anxiety symptoms, the predicted probability of occasional and recurrent cannabis apply was 39.8% and 5.ix%, respectively. Among adolescents with depression levels of generalized anxiety symptoms, the predicted probability of occasional and recurrent cannabis use was 21.one% and 1.vi%, respectively. These findings were interpreted as supporting the internalizing pathway to substance use (Hussong, Jones, Stein, Baucom, & Boeding, 2011) in that adolescents with generalized anxiety, panic, and depression tend to use cannabis to cope with negative affects and tension and anxiety symptoms.

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Fear-Related Anxiety Disorders and Mail-Traumatic Stress Disorder

Arshya
Vahabzadeh
, …
Kerry J.
Ressler
, in


Neurobiology of Brain Disorders, 2015

Nomenclature of Anxiety Disorders

The quaternary edition of
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
(DSM-Four) and its text revision, DSM-IV-TR (which was current when this chapter was conceived), outlined 12 categories of anxiety disorder.
3

In comparison to the before DSM-III, three new feet disorders were added to DSM-IV: astute stress disorder, anxiety disorder due to a general medical condition, and substance-induced anxiety disorder. The categorization of anxiety disorders was subsequently divided into feet, obsessive–compulsive, and trauma- and stressor-related disorders in the 5th edition, DSM-5, published in 2013 (Table 37.1).
4

The historical aspects of anxiety disorder nomenclature are of involvement to clinicians and researchers since they underpin both research methodology and clinical treatment. In DSM-Two, feet disorders were categorized under “neurosis”, a term which was later on dropped from DSM-Three. Iii anxiety disorders were outlined in DSM-II, namely anxiety neurosis, phobic neurosis, and obsessive compulsive neurosis. DSM-3 attempted to further subcategorize anxiety disorders, for example incorporating both generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder. These diagnoses would take both fallen nether feet neurosis in DSM-II; nonetheless, this new categorization reflected increasing knowledge about the illness class and treatment of these conditions. The increment in the number of categories seen in DSM-IV and DSM-5 could be perceived every bit an increasing recognition and awareness of the importance of anxiety disorders. Notwithstanding, some critics point out that the discriminative validity of these disorders may be undermined equally nosotros contend with increasingly pregnant overlap of symptomatology and comorbidity betwixt anxiety and other psychiatric disorders.


Table 37.1.
Categorization of Anxiety, Obsessive–Compulsive, and Trauma-Related Disorders in DSM-v


Anxiety DISORDERS
Separation anxiety disorder
Selective mutism
Specific phobia
Social anxiety disorder (social phobia)
Panic disorder
Panic assault (specifier)
Agoraphobia
Generalized feet disorder
Substance/medication-induced feet disorder
Feet disorder due to another medical condition
Other specified anxiety disorder
Unspecified feet disorder
OBSESSIVE–COMPULSIVE AND RELATED DISORDERS
Obsessive–compulsive disorder
Trunk dysmorphic disorder
Hoarding disorder
Trichotillomania (pilus-pulling disorder)
Excoriation (skin-picking) disorder
Substance/medication-induced obsessive–compulsive and related disorder
Obsessive–compulsive and related disorder due to some other medical condition
Other specified obsessive–compulsive and related disorder
Unspecified obsessive–compulsive and related disorder
TRAUMA- AND STRESSOR-RELATED DISORDERS
Reactive attachment disorder
Disinhibited social engagement disorder
Post-traumatic stress disorder
Acute stress disorder
Adjustment disorders
Other specified trauma- and stressor-related disorder
Unspecified trauma- and stressor-related disorder

Source: American Psychiatric Association.
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. fifth ed.
DSM-v.
Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2013.
four

A number of unlike anxiety disorders are described in DSM-5, including panic disorder, social phobia, PTSD, and generalized anxiety disorder. Several lines of enquiry suggest that a majority of feet disorders may be conceptualized as disorders of fear.
five,six

Large-scale population studies such equally the NEMESIS written report in kingdom of the netherlands have highlighted how a “fearfulness” dimension appears to be integral to social phobia, specific phobia, agoraphobia, and panic disorder. Conversely, the NEMESIS study besides plant that although generalized anxiety disorder shares an “anxiety–misery” dimension similar to that of major depression and dysthymia, information technology does non share the “fear” dimension common to panic disorder, specific phobia, and PTSD.
6

This reinforced previous findings by Krueger, who investigated patterns of psychiatric comorbidity using a sample of 8098 participants from
the National Comorbidity Survey.
5

Collectively, these findings are consistent with a subdivision of the broad form of anxiety disorders into disorders of feet and disorders of fright (Fig. 37.1).


Effigy 37.i.
Subcategorization of anxiety disorders based on symptoms.



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Behavioral Treatments for Feet in Minimally Verbal Children With ASD

Louis P.
Hagopian
, …
Thompson Due east.
Davis
, in


Feet in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder, 2017

Diagnosis

Anxiety disorders take been plant to cooccur at highly variable rates, xi–84%, with ASD individuals (White et al., 2009). This variability may exist due in part to the highly heterogeneous presentation of ASD as well every bit the complexity of the manifestations of anxiety in the ASD population, not to mention the biases which may be present for or against diagnosis in those with comorbid ASD. Nosotros continue to recommend use of the terms
unproblematic and broken-hearted avoidance
to help differentiate betwixt stimuli and situations that may constitute an
anxiety disorder
in individuals with and without ASD. However, the electric current
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition
(DSM-five;
American Psychiatric Association, 2013) classifies
feet
equally the “anticipation of future threat” and furthermore, diverse anxiety disorders can be differentiated by the “specific content of the thoughts and behavior that may induce the fear or anxiety.” Given this definition, how tin can the electric current diagnostic classifications of anxiety disorders exist applied to those individuals with limited cerebral and/or verbal abilities? Early studies conducted on ASD suggested approximately half of those individuals diagnosed were incapable of oral communication acquisition (Rutter, 1978). Recent estimates have shown a marked decrease in these estimates due in part to earlier assessment and detection techniques (Klingler et al., 2003); however, the fact remains that some individuals with ASD never develop functional voice communication.

These deficits in verbal communication in a subpopulation of individuals with ASD may account for some of the variability in comorbidity rates. Researchers have shown college levels of anxiety to be associated with functional language in individuals with ASD (Gadow and Sprafkin, 1998, 2002). Researchers accept also argued these findings may be complicated by diagnostic overshadowing (Mason and Scior, 2004), while data from other studies suggests that individuals with ASD simply practice not meet
cooccurring criteria for other psychiatric conditions (Leyfer et al., 2006; Witmer and Lecavalier, 2010, Kaat et al., 2013). Differential diagnosis of ASD and anxiety, so, requires a conscientious evaluation of those symptoms unique to each disorder besides equally common presentations of symptom patterns for individuals evincing comorbidity. Additionally, findings from a number of studies take shown that fears and behavioral responses common among the typically developing population, are not necessarily replicated in individuals with ASD (e.g.,
Evans et al., 2005;
Kanner, 1943;
Matson and Honey, 1990).

Due to the overlap of symptomology betwixt ASD and feet disorders a number of studies have attempted to differentiate those factors which are inextricably shared from those that may be conceptually differentiable. For instance, social avoidance and a preference to exist alone are shared qualities between both anxiety and ASD (Businesswoman-Cohen et al., 2001; Roberson-Nay et al., 2007; White et al., 2012). However, ASD individuals may be less aware or take less concern for the social rejection component found in social feet disorder (Leyfer et al., 2006; Muris et al., 1998). As well, excessive worries around environmental changes or deviations from a schedule can be mutual in both groups of disorders (generalized anxiety disorder and ASD), as can exist highly rigid behaviors, exact rituals, and compulsions (OCD and ASD). The difficulty comes from determining whether these behaviors occur to reduce distress in the case of OCD or are generalized worry and broad broken-hearted abstention in the case of GAD. Differential diagnosis would also crave the clinician to appraise those behaviors seen less typically in non-ASD populations such equally strict adherence to routine, confining interests, and repetitive behaviors.

Attempts to distinguish between the similarities betwixt anxiety and ASD symptoms have typically supported distinctiveness within areas which practise non necessarily lend themselves to application in those who are minimally verbal or lower functioning. For example,
Farrugia and Hudson (2006)
found the simply divergence between anxiety presentation in typically developing and nontypically developing groups was reported idea patterns of social threat and physical injury, areas which would be hard if not impossible to appraise in a minimally verbal population. Singular presentations of anxiety are besides common in those with ASD and can include social fear without a negative evaluative component, nontraditional specific phobias, and fear of change and novelty (Kerns et al., 2014).
Leyfer et al. (2006)
constitute typical phobias were rarely endorsed in the ASD population; however, fears of loud noises, crowds, and shots/needles were much more
common. Additionally, idiosyncratic fears (due east.grand., flushing toilets, beards, mechanical objects) take besides been found in ASD individuals (Richman et al., 2012). Many of these problematic or avoided stimuli raise additional questions as to whether the problem is fright or anxiety versus altered sensory part. For case, repetitive and ritualistic behaviors seen in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are also usually observed in many persons with ASD (McDougle et al., 1995), including those individuals that are not suspected of experiencing whatsoever anxiety. In such cases, repetitive behaviors may exist a preferred self-stimulatory action, in contrast to ritualistic beliefs triggered by obsessional thoughts that is the hallmark of OCD. Circumspection should be taken to non immediately characterize these ritualistic or stereotypic behaviors every bit “OCD” based on their repetitive nature. Avoidance is another surface area which may present itself differentially as younger children and those with verbal deficits have been shown to express fear and avoidance in conjunction with other behaviors such as assailment, devastation of property, and cocky-injurious behavior (Hagopian et al., 2001; Ricciardi et al., 2006).

Finally, of particular business concern with the diagnosis of anxiety in minimally verbal ASD populations is that strict adherence to the
DSM-5
diagnostic criteria may miss a meaning proportion of these individuals in need of clinical services due to verbal requirements of the diagnostic criteria. For example, Criterion A for separation anxiety disorder requires endorsement of three out of viii symptoms; yet, 4 of the eight symptoms require the expression of “worry, thematic explanations of nightmares, or complaints” (APA, 2013). Additionally, some disorders such as selective mutism and GAD may inherently be unavailable to the minimally verbal ASD population when adhering to strict diagnostic nomenclature. Given the host of challenges associated with differential diagnosis, thorough cess procedures are considered to be vitally important.

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Linking Genes to Encephalon Function in Health and Disease

S.D.
Norrholm
,
Grand.J.
Ressler
, in


Neuroscience, 2009

Considerations for future genetic investigations of feet disorders: classification of ecology factors

An idea that was discussed higher up was the
nomenclature of anxiety disorders
according to symptom dimensions equally an culling to diagnostic criteria.

Kendler and others (2003)
summarized findings of the Virginia Twin Registry and classified significant life events according to the nature of the event.
Danger events
were those that were related to an unpleasant adverse consequence.
Humiliation events
were those associated with rejection or failure.
Loss events
included occasions in which there was a real or perceived loss of a person, possession, or respect (Kendler et al., 2003). Given that the well-nigh constructive genetic analyses of feet disorders will involve reliable Yard×Due east models, it is important to adequately define the nature of the life events that may interact with genetic hazard factors to produce anxiety-related phenotypes.

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Different patterns of freezing behavior organized in the periaqueductal gray of rats: Association with different types of anxiety

Marcus L.
Brandão
, …
Jesus
Landeira-Fernandez
, in


Behavioural Encephalon Research, 2008

To make an integrative appraisement of the neural circuits proposed to underlie the dissimilar types of feet, we start with important changes that took place in the
nomenclature of anxiety disorders
during the 1970s. During that time, most psychiatrists viewed anxiety every bit a single construct that ranged in intensity from normal to pathological or neurotic levels. Accordingly, anxiolytic drugs were the main prescription to treat this single disorder. A major shift to this view occurred in the offset of 1980, with the publication of the third edition of the American Psychiatric Classification (DSM-3)

[i]. Some years later, the revised version of this classification established PD as an contained nosological category
[ii]. This new classification delineated distinct nosological entities, namely, GAD, PD, agoraphobia, simple phobias, social phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder, and obsessive–compulsive disorder. In general, the same proposal remained in the DSM-4 classification, beingness besides adopted by the ICD-10 nomenclature of the World Health Arrangement of 1992
[85].

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Festschrift in Honour of Jeffrey Grey – Result 1: Feet and Neuroticism

Frederico One thousand
Graeff
, in


Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 2004

The final footstep was to correlate the above levels of predatory defense force to anxiety-related emotions, normal as well as pathological. For this, it is necessary to have into account the developments that were taking identify in the
nomenclature of anxiety disorders. A major shift in opinion occurred in 1980, when the third Edition of the American Psychiatric Classification (DSM III) was released

[three]. Replacing the preceding view that merged anxiety disorders in the undifferentiated pool of psychoneurosis, the DSM III classification delineated distinct nosological entities, namely PD, agoraphobia, simple phobias, social phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder, obsessive–compulsive disorder, and GAD. Except for a few changes in diagnostic criteria, the same theoretical stand remained in the revised version of DSM Iii
[iv]
and in the DSM Iv
[5]
classification, existence also adopted by the ICD-10 nomenclature of the Earth Health Organization
[142]. Although these classifications are mainly based on overt symptoms and therapeutic response, it is implicit that dissimilar manifestations are likely to exist due to singled-out neural substrates. This motivated bones researchers in several fields to look for specific animal models and neural correlates for each disorder
[143].

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Twin studies of the covariation of pain with low and anxiety: A systematic review and re-evaluation of critical needs

Waqas Ullah
Khan
, …
Marco
Battaglia
, in


Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 2020

2

Methods

This systematic review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines (Moher et al., 2009). Institutional review lath approval was waived every bit no patient data were accessed for the study.

2.ane

Data sources and searches

Nosotros searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, EMBASE (via OVID), MEDLINE (via OVID), and PsychInfo (via OVID) for studies published from inception through May xvi, 2019. The literature search was conducted past the investigators afterward consulting with a librarian regarding the search strategy. The search strategy included terms for twin studies (twin, twin written report, twin studies, or twin pair) combined with search terms for hurting (pain, fibromyalgia, headache, migraine, angina, neuralgia, zoster, irritable bowel, ulcer, osteoarthritis, arthritis, temporomandibular joint, or musculoskeletal), low (depression, depressed, depressive disorder, major low, major depressive disorder, or MDD), and feet disorders (due east.g., feet, panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, social anxiety, generalized feet disorder, specific phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder, or obsessive compulsive disorder). Although neither PTSD nor OCD are office of the DSM-5 current
nomenclature of anxiety disorders, we included them in this review under feet disorders equally the searched literature covered an extended menstruation.

2.two

Report selection

Studies were included if they: (1) reported original data on twin studies; (2) reported on pain and depression and/or anxiety in twins; (3) were published in peer-reviewed journals; (4) used a validated method (including questionnaires) to appraise for pain, anxiety, and depression; (five) had a sample size ≥100 twin pairs. If more than 1 report was conducted using the same dataset (i.e. aforementioned sample and aforementioned measures), they were included simply if unlike enquiry questions were tested. When at that place was an overlap in written report samples, this was flagged in the results section to highlight the non-independence of findings. Studies that did non provide heritability estimates, quantitative genetic or ecology factor estimates, or did not use the classical twin or co-twin command method were excluded. Studies reporting concordance rates without a formal interpretation of heritability were also excluded. Electronic searches were supplemented by examining the bibliographies of review articles to place additional articles. 2 authors (W.U.K. and Grand.B.) independently reviewed the titles, abstracts, and articles. A third author (G.M.) resolved discrepancies past give-and-take and adjudication.

2.3

Data extraction

Two authors (W.U.K. and M.B.) independently extracted the post-obit information from eligible articles using a standardized grade: first author’s name, twelvemonth of publication, sample/registry name and country setting, written report design, sample size, the number of twin pairs included in the study, the percentage of females in the sample, age of participants (hateful and SD), the specific type of pain, anxiety, and depression assessed, the diagnostic musical instrument or rating scale used to measure hurting, feet, and depression, and key findings from the study. One reviewer (Due west.U.Thousand.) conducted a full abstraction of all data, and 2 reviewers (M.B. and G.M.) verified accuracy.

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The effectiveness of heart movement desensitization and reprocessing toward anxiety disorder: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Ninik
Yunitri
, …
Kuei-Ru
Chou
, in


Journal of Psychiatric Research, 2020

2

Methods

ii.i

Identification and option of studies

This study followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Assay (PRISMA) guidelines. A comprehensive literature search of all articles published from the beginning of the databases upwardly to December 2018 through CINAHL, Cochrane, Embase, Ovid, Scopus, PubMed, and Google Scholar databases. The search used medical subject field headings (MeSHS) terms including: “eye move desensitization and reprocessing” or “EMDR,” “feet disorders,” and “generalized anxiety disorder” or “GAD” or “phobia” or “panic disorder” and set a filter for RCT studies but.

The eligibility criteria for the electric current meta-analysis were studies that had a RCT design and tested the effectiveness of EMDR on feet disorders. This search was conducted according to the PICO (Population, Intervention, Comparison, and Outcomes) tool endorsed past the Cochrane Collaboration (Higgins and Light-green, 2008
). We included all populations with feet disorders who received EMDR as a handling therapy. The diagnosis could be fabricated either clinically, based on diagnostic criteria, or with a score in a higher place the cut-off point on a cocky-report measure out. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Transmission of Mental Disorders (DSM-five), the
classification of anxiety disorders
has inverse drastically compared with the previous version. Currently, feet disorders include generalized anxiety disorder, social feet disorder, selective mutism, panic disorder, agoraphobia, and specific phobias. Studies with mixed diagnoses participants were included as long as anxiety disorder was the primary diagnosis. For the type of intervention, studies were included if they reported EMDR every bit the psychotherapy either in individual or group format. For comparing, whatsoever therapies including Therapy every bit Usual (TAU), waiting list-control, or another control psychological handling were included in the written report. In case a study was compared between two or more types of control groups, the upshot size of EMDR was calculated against the passive control such as the waiting listing or TAU. For outcomes, studies were included if they measured at least one of the following symptoms: anxiety, phobia, panic, behavioral/somatic and traumatic feelings. Only studies that were parallel randomized controlled trials were included. We excluded studies in which EMDR was combined with other forms of therapy or pharmacological interventions and studies that did not provide sufficient statistics for effect size calculations. Studies were not limited based on specific participant age or language. While searching for prospective studies, we supplemented the results by hand searching of meta-analyses and review articles.

2.2

Data extraction and risk of bias

The information extracted from the articles was organized past participant characteristics (sample size, age, and gender), diagnosis characteristics (criteria to diagnose and diagnosis), intervention characteristics (experiment and command group interventions’ type, the amount of sessions, duration of each session, frequency in a week, and full fourth dimension of therapy), and outcomes (outcome indicators and assessment tools). I investigator extracted information and results were confirmed past another investigator earlier they were transferred and analyzed with a Comprehensive Meta-Analysis program (Version three.0; Biostat Inc).

All included articles underwent a run a risk of bias (RoB) assessment using the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version ii.0 to assess the quality. Two independent researchers assessed the RoB independently. There were five domains with potential risks of bias as follows: randomization process, deviation from intended intervention, missing outcome data, measurement of the event, and selection of the reported results. The assessment of bias was performed to conclude either the article had a low risk, some concern, or a loftier take a chance of bias. If disagreement occurred, a third party was included until consensus was reached through discussion. The Cohen’s m for inter-rater reliability for the research quality assessment was 0.88.

2.three

Issue measures

Nosotros analyzed result data on symptoms of anxiety, phobia, panic, behavioral/somatic and traumatic feelings. Some studies used more than one instrument to measure the same symptom. In terms of that situation, we selected the near oftentimes used measures across studies. Equally the primary result, the symptoms of feet were measured using; Test Feet Inventory (TAI) (Bauman and Melnyk, 1994;
Cook-Vienot and Taylor, 2012;
Gosselin and Matthews, 1995); Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) (Doering et al., 2013); Beck Feet Inventory (BAI) (Feske and Goldstein, 1997;
Goldstein et al., 2000;
Zeighami et al., 2018); The Personal Report of Communication Anxiety-24 (PRCA-24) (Foley and Spates, 1995); Body Sensations Questionnaire (BSQ1) (Horst et al., 2017); Visual Analog Calibration (VAS) (Littel et al., 2017); Anxiety and Depression Scale-Reduce (Advert-R) (Passoni et al., 2018); Country-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) (Rathschlag and Memmert, 2014); Land Anxiety-Behavioural Avoidance Test (SA-BAT) (Muris et al., 1998); and Hospital Feet Low Scale (HADS) (Rahimi et al., 2018). Symptoms of phobia, panic disorder, somatic, and traumatic feelings were secondary outcomes. The symptoms of phobia were assessed using: Dental Fright Survey (DFS) (Doering et al., 2013); Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire (ACQ) (Feske and Goldstein, 1997;
Goldstein et al., 2000;
Horst et al., 2017); Spider Phobia Questionnaire (SPQ) (Muris et al., 1997); Spider Phobia Questionnaire for Children (SPQ-C) (Muris et al., 1998); Agoraphobia Questionnaire (APQ) (Cook-Vienot and Taylor, 2012); and Imagery Fearsomeness rating (IFR) (Bates et al., 1996). Behavioral/somatic symptoms were measured past using: Cursory Symptoms Inventory (BSI) (Doering et al., 2013;
Feske and Goldstein, 1997); The Cursory Body Sensations Estimation Questionnaire (BBSIQ) (Goldstein et al., 2000); Body Sensations Questionnaire (BSQ) (Horst et al., 2017); and Behavioural Avoidance Exam (BAT) (Muris and Merckelbach, 1997;
Muris et al., 1997,
1998). Panic Appraisal Inventory (PAI) (Feske and Goldstein, 1997;
Goldstein et al., 2000) and Impact Event Calibration revision (IES-R) (Doering et al., 2013;
Passoni et al., 2018)were the just tools used to appraise symptoms of panic disorders and traumatic feelings respectively.

2.4

Publication bias

Publication bias simply applied to the principal outcome of feet. Egger’s regression intercept (Egger et al., 1997) and Begg rank correlation were used for examining publication bias. Egger’s linear regression utilizes a logarithmic scale to analyze the funnel plot’s asymmetry. A high correlation in Begg’south examination would indicate that the funnel plot is asymmetric. An asymmetric shape of the funnel plot would betoken the presence of publication bias.

2.v

Statistical assay

Event sizes (Hedges’
chiliad) were calculated for the departure between the baseline and post-treatment furnishings for both the EMDR and the control grouping. Nosotros did not clarify the differences between baseline and follow-up information because only four out of 17 articles conducted repeated measurements. Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software program version 3.0 was used to determine the treatment effect along with the effect size using a random-effects model. This approach was the near suitable because the effect size may vary among studies, which could lead to heterogeneity (Ahn and Kang, 2018;
Barili et al., 2018; Y. H.
Lee, 2018). Hedges’
1000
was considered as the reference to calculate the outcome size. The value of Hedges’
g
0.2, 0.5, and 0.8 represent pocket-size, medium, and large consequence sizes.

Heterogeneity of upshot sizes was based on Cochrane’s
Q
or
Q
statistics and
I

2

statistic and a
p-value of < 0.05. The caste of heterogeneity was divided into three levels, 25%, 50%, and 75%, respective to low, moderate, and high estimates, respectively. Considering that Cochrane’s
Q
has depression statistical strength, a
p-value of <0.05 indicated heterogeneity (Y. H.
Lee, 2018).

In the presence of heterogeneity, further analyses were required to determine the variance and moderating variables. EMDR therapy characteristics (duration of therapy, number of therapy sessions, the total time of therapy, type of control group therapy), and patients’ characteristics (historic period and gender) were potential variables that could influence the result size. A mixed-effects model was used to decide the consequence size,
Q
statistics, and
p-value between chiselled variables, and a two-sided
p-values was used for continuous variables. A significant
p-value of <0.05 indicated the potential effects as moderator variables.

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Which of the Following is Not an Anxiety Disorder

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