The Cease Fire That Ended the Vietnam War Resulted in

The Cease Fire That Ended the Vietnam War Resulted in

1973 in the Vietnam State of war
began with a peace agreement, the Paris Peace Accords, signed by the U.s. and Southward Vietnam on one side of the Vietnam War and communist Due north Vietnam and the insurgent Viet Cong on the other. Although honored in some respects, the peace agreement was violated past both North and South Vietnam as the struggle for ability and command of territory in South Vietnam continued. North Vietnam released all American prisoners of war and the The states completed its armed services withdrawal from S Vietnam.

U.South. Congressional opposition to the Vietnam War forced the U.Southward. to cease bombing communist forces in Kingdom of cambodia in August and in November Congress adopted the War Powers Resolution which limited the U.S. President’s authority to wage war.

1973 in the Vietnam War

← 1972

1974 →



Hanoi Taxi the aeroplane used to bring home American POWs from Hanoi
Location

Indochina

Belligerents

Anti-Communist forces:



South Vietnam




United States



South Korea

Cambodia

Khmer Republic

Laos

Kingdom of Lao people’s democratic republic

Communist forces:



Northward Vietnam



Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam

Viet Cong


Cambodia

Khmer Rouge

Laos

Pathet Lao

Strength
US: ~24,000 reduced to 0 (by March 29)[1]
Casualties and losses
South Vietnam: 27,901 killed[2]

: 275


US: 68 killed[3]
U.Southward. estimate:
~39,000 PAVN/VC killed[4]

January

[edit]

1 January

At midday, following a 36-hour New Twelvemonth armistice, U.South. shipping resumed airstrikes across South Vietnam and North Vietnam upwards to the 20th parallel due north. S Vietnam reported 49 armistice violations resulting in 44 People’due south Army of Vietnam (PAVN)/Vietcong (VC), eight Southward Vietnamese armed forces and iii civilians killed, the most serious incident being PAVN artillery firing 300 rounds confronting Republic of Vietnam Airborne Segmentation positions three miles (4.viii km) southwest of Quảng Trị.[five]

2 Jan

The Democratic Political party members of the United States House of Representatives voted 154 to 75 to cut off U.S. funds for the war in Vietnam once all U.S. forces were withdrawn and U.South. Prisoners of state of war (POWs) were released. As President Richard Nixon and almost Republicans opposed the cutoff, the vote had only symbolic impact.[6]

: 155–vi

The Pentagon acknowledged for the first fourth dimension that Bạch Mai Hospital and Gia Lam Airport in Hanoi had been accidentally damaged during Dec’due south Operation Linebacker II bombing raids, but without clarifying if the damage was caused by bombing, falling debris or antiaircraft weapons.[seven]

In Cambodia Central khmer Rouge forces captured ii Khmer National Military machine (FANK) positions on Route three, 24 miles (39 km) southwest of Phnom Penh, while FANK forces repelled a 36-hour Central khmer Rouge/PAVN assault on Prey Totung, 10 miles (sixteen km) from Phnom Penh International Airport losing xx killed.[eight]

3 Jan

U.S. shipping connected to flop N Vietnam below the 20th parallel, with 84 strikes past fighter-bombers and 13 flights of three B-52s each. 229 airstrikes were conducted over Due south Vietnam and 22 B-52 strikes were conducted most the Vietnamese Demilitarized Zone (DMZ). PAVN/VC forces increased attacks across Due south Vietnam and shelled Bien Hoa Air Base killing iii civilians.[9]

A Central khmer Rouge/PAVN rocket attack on Phnom Penh International Aerodrome and a nearby refugee campsite killed three civilians and wounded more than 300, while 2 FANK positions 11 miles (eighteen km) and 17 miles (27 km) south of Phnom Penh were overrun by Khmer Rouge/PAVN forces.[10]

In Beijing, Chinese leader Zhou Enlai told Northward Vietnam’s peace negotiator, Lê Đức Thọ, that “the U.S. endeavour to exert pressure through bombing has failed.” He advised Tho to be flexible in peace negotiations with the Americans and to “let them get out as speedily as possible” and wait for the situation to alter.[six]

: 157

4 January

South Vietnamese military spokesmen said that PAVN/VC attacks had risen to their highest level since October 1972 when a ceasefire agreement was expected to go into result, with 116 incidents across the country, including 22 PAVN/VC and 8 Southward Vietnamese militia were reported killed in fighting at Truong Luu in Tây Ninh province.[11]
293 S Vietnamese, i,288 PAVN/VC and v U.S. military personnel were reported to take been killed in the preceding calendar week.[12]

North Vietnam reported that i,318 people had been killed and 1,261 wounded in the Linebacker II raids on Hanoi.[thirteen]

The Autonomous members of the United States Senate followed the atomic number 82 of the Democrats in the House of Representatives in voting 36 to 12 to cut off funds for the Vietnam State of war once all U.Due south. military forces were withdrawn and the POWs released.[half dozen]

: 156

five January

South Vietnam reported 97 attacks throughout the state, simply U.Due south. sources described them as “small in scale and significance.” ARVN Airborne forces killed 24 PAVN and captured ane for the loss of two killed in fighting in the foothills w of Quảng Trị. Vietnamese Rangers and militia killed 39 PAVN in the Key Highlands w of Road xiv. 116 fighter-bomber and 15 B-52 flights struck North Vietnam, while 229 fight-bomber and 14 B-52 strikes were conducted over South Vietnam along with 176 sorties by Republic of Vietnam Air Force (RVNAF) aircraft.[xiv]

At a bipartisan breakfast meeting with Congressional leaders, Nixon said that he was neither optimistic nor pessimistic regarding the peace negotiations and would practise what he regarded as necessary to secure “a proper kind of settlement.”[15]

Canada’s Secretary of State for External Diplomacy, Mitchell Precipitous, said he found it difficult to understand the reason for the U.South. Christmas bombing and that “we deplore the action.”[half dozen]

: 153

Nixon wrote a letter to President Nguyễn Văn Thiệu of S Vietnam request for Thiệu’s cooperation in the Paris peace negotiations and stating that “the unity of our ii countries…would be gravely jeopardized if you persist in your present grade.” Thiệu had scuttled a draft peace agreement reached in Oct 1972. Nixon pledged to respond with “full strength” if Northward Vietnam violated the peace agreement.[6]

: 155

An attempt by two FANK battalions to relieve the besieged town of Tram Khnar was repulsed with heavy losses reported.[16]

vi January

Every bit U.S. National Security Adviser Henry Kissinger prepared to resume peace talks with North Vietnam in Paris, Nixon told him that “almost whatsoever settlement would be tolerable.” Nixon expressed willingness to take the typhoon agreement of Oct 1972 with a few cosmetic changes to make information technology appear the U.South. had gained something in the negotiations.[vi]

: 155

45 B-52s and 115 U.South. fighter-bombers hit targets in North Vietnam many effectually Vinh and Đồng Hới.[17]

FANK troops succeeded in recapturing Tram Khnar.[18]

8 January

United States Air Forcefulness (USAF) crewmen Helm Paul Howman and Commencement lieutenant Lawrence Kullman, scored the last U.Due south. aerial victory of the war shooting downwardly a Vietnam People’s Air Force MiG-21 with their F-4D Phantom.[19]

: 433

9 January

Kissinger and Le Duc Tho in Paris achieved a “quantum” in the peace talks with the principal obstacle remaining the opposition of the South Vietnamese government to the agreement.[half-dozen]

: 158

11 January

With most details of a peace agreement worked out, Kissinger and Tho reached secret agreements regarding cease fires in both South Vietnam and Laos, the release of American POWs and political prisoners in S Vietnam and the partial withdrawal of North Vietnamese forces from South Vietnam.[6]

: 161

The Governor General of Commonwealth of australia Paul Hasluck proclaimed the cessation of hostilities in South Vietnam past Australian forces.[20]

fourteen January

Nixon wrote a letter to Thiệu which was delivered in Saigon by military adviser Alexander Haig. Nixon said he was “irrevocably” committed to sign the peace agreement and said he would practice so “alone, if necessary.” The consequences if Thiệu did not sign the agreement would be a cutoff in American military and economic aid. Nixon pledged to “react strongly in the event the agreement is violated” past N Vietnam and to continue aid to South Vietnam if Thiệu cooperated.”[21]

fifteen January

All bombing of North Vietnam by the United States was halted and would non exist resumed.[22]

: 2

17 January

Thiệu responded to Nixon’s alphabetic character with a long list of objections to the draft peace agreement, about importantly the fact that the withdrawal of all PAVN forces from South Vietnam was not required.[6]

: 167–70

18 January – 21 Feb

Operation Phou Phiang III was the concluding offensive of the Royal Lao Army (RLA) in the Laotian Civil State of war. The RLA attacked PAVN positions on the Plain of Jars merely failed to evict them before the armistice mandated past the Vientiane Treaty came into event on 21 February.[23]

: 390–ane

20 January

Nixon responded to Thiệu’s objections to the typhoon peace agreement. He attempted to reassure Thiệu on the effect of PAVN soldiers in Due south Vietnam. He repeated that he would sign the agreement whether or not Thiệu agreed.[6]

: 171

21 Jan

Thiệu notified the U.Southward. government that he would sign the Paris Peace Accords on behalf of South Vietnam.[6]

: 172

Knowing that the peace agreement called for a cease fire in place, Thiệu ordered his armed forces to regain equally much territory every bit possible prior to the ceasefire agreement. South Vietnamese forces established forward posts in communist-controlled areas to bolster their merits to the surrounding land. This was the beginning of what was called the State of war of the flags.[22]

: 3

[24]

: 38

22 Jan

Lyndon Johnson lies in state at the Capitol Rotunda

Quondam U.Due south. president Lyndon B. Johnson, whose presidency was marred by the Vietnam State of war, died.

23 Jan

Nixon announced that a peace agreement had been reached in Paris which would terminate the Vietnam War and “bring peace with laurels.”[25]

26 Jan

With the knowledge that the Paris Peace agreement chosen for a stop burn down in place, PAVN/VC troops in Due south Vietnam attacked 400 villages attempting to aggrandize their area of command before the cease burn down took result. Both North and South Vietnam struggled to gain control of more territory during the “land catch.” Inside ii weeks South Vietnam had regained command of all simply 23 of the villages.[22]

: 4

[24]

: 38

PAVN rockets damaged 2 The states Marine Corps (USMC) F-4s equally they rearmed at Da Nang Air Base of operations.[26]

: 216

26–31 Jan

In the Boxing of Cửa Việt, South Vietnamese forces attempted to recapture the Cửa Việt Base and its vicinity, in northeast Quảng Trị Province. While initially successful, the PAVN somewhen forced them to retreat with heavy losses in armored vehicles. Two U.Due south. aircraft were shot down while supporting the boxing, resulting in one captured and three missing.[26]

: 134–6

27 January

The Paris Peace Accords, formally titled the “Agreement on Ending the War and Restoring Peace in Vietnam,”, intended to halt the fighting betwixt Due north and South Vietnam and stop U.South. military machine interest in the state of war were signed in Paris. The governments of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam), the Commonwealth of Vietnam (South Vietnam) and the United states of america, as well as the Provisional Revolutionary Authorities (PRG) that represented the VC signed the agreement.[6]

: 177, 214

The U.Southward. agreed to withdraw its remaining military personnel from South Vietnam within threescore days. North Vietnam agreed to a armistice and to return all American prisoners of state of war. North Vietnam was permitted to leave 150,000 soldiers and to retain the territory it controlled in South Vietnam.[25]

The U.S. and Due north Vietnam also pledged to withdraw their military forces from Laos and Cambodia and cease military operations there.[22]

: 36

The armistice was observed in some areas, only Southward Vietnamese troops still fought to regain control of villages captured by PAVN/VC forces the day earlier.[22]

: 3

Lieutenant Colonel William B. Nolde was killed near An Lộc, the last American soldier to die prior to the ceasefire envisioned in the Paris Peace Accords.[25]
[24]

: 32

U.s. Secretary of Defense Melvin Laird announced that the draft of young American men into armed forces service would exist ended. A few men continued to be drafted until June 30, 1973, when the federal authorities’s potency to induct expired.[25]
[27]
[28]

27 Jan – 16 February

The PAVN 141st Regiment captured Sa Huỳnh Base of operations in southern Quảng Ngãi Province. Despite the armistice coming into effect, given its strategic location the ARVN 2nd Division launched a series of counterattacks, forcing the PAVN out of Sa Huỳnh by 16 February 1973.[29]

28 Jan

N Vietnam historic the signing of the Paris Peace Accords every bit a victory. “The Vietnamese revolution has accomplished several important gains, but the struggle of our people must proceed to consolidate those victories [to] build a peaceful, unified, independent, democratic, and strong Vietnam.” The U.S. media praised Nixon and Kissinger for their accomplishment of “peace with honor.” In South Vietnam few believed that the agreement would lead to a lasting peace.[6]

: 177–eight

xxx January

Elliot Richardson replaces Melvin Laird as U.Southward. Secretarial assistant of Defense.[26]

: 287

31 January

Reports from American military advisers in the countryside of South Vietnam reported “ceasefire or no, operations are continuing much every bit before” and “with the back up of daily air strikes and heavy artillery barrages they [the South Vietnamese military forces] accept finally begun to roll the VC back” and more than Commonwealth of Vietnam Air Force (RVNAF) tactical air “strikes were flown in Lam Dong in the 3 days after the ceasefire than had been flown in the previous vi months.”[22]

: 79

Remainder of Military Forces (late January 1973)
[30]

: 28

South Vietnamese Military machine
Combat regulars 210,000
Regional and Popular Forcefulness militias 510,000
Service troops 200,000
Full: South Vietnamese military 920,000
Communist armed forces
PAVN regulars (in Due south Vietnam) 123,000
Viet Cong 25,000
Service troops 71,000
Total: Communist armed forces 219,000

February

[edit]

one Feb

The U.S. and North Vietnam began implementing the undercover portions of the Paris Peace Accords. North Vietnam handed over a list of 10 names of U.Due south. military and civilians who were prisoners in Laos. The U.South. said in response that information technology had records for 317 unaccounted for personnel. The U.Southward. had promised $iii.25 billion in aid to North Vietnam in substitution for cooperation in determining the fate of missing and unaccounted for Americans.[6]

: 181

3 February

The Khmer Rouge cut the highway link between the capital Phnom Penh and the country’s merely deep-water port, Kompong Som. Henceforth, the master route for supplies to reach Phnom Penh would be the Mekong River from Saigon.[24]

: 53

5 February

Baron 52
a USAF EC-47Q was shot down on an electronic intelligence mission over Salavan Province, Laos killing all viii crewmen.[31]

half dozen Feb – 27 July

Operation End Sweep to demine North Vietnamese harbors, coastline and inland waterways began.[26]

: 287

9 February

With the Khmer Rouge closing in on Phnom Penh, the Usa resumed bombing of North Vietnamese military machine bases and supply routes (the Ho Chi Minh Trail) in Cambodia. The ceasefire in North and South Vietnam did not apply to Kingdom of cambodia and Lao people’s democratic republic.[22]

: 3

Over the adjacent half dozen months the U.S. would drop a larger tonnage of bombs on Kingdom of cambodia than on Japan in Globe State of war II.[24]

: 53

10 February

Kissinger visited Hanoi and met with Prime Minister of North Vietnam Pham Van Dong. The ii men discussed the implementation of the U.S. aid programme for Vietnam and the institution of diplomatic relations betwixt the U.S. and North Vietnam.[half-dozen]

: 181–2

12 February

Performance Homecoming resulted in the repatriation of 591 American prisoners of war held past Due north Vietnam. 3 C-141A transports flew to Hanoi and one C-9A shipping was sent to Saigon to pick up released prisoners of war. The first flight of 40 U.S. prisoners of war left Hanoi in a C-141A, later known as the “Hanoi Taxi” and now in a museum. From February 12 to April 4, there were 54 C-141 missions flying out of Hanoi, bringing the former POWs abode.[32]

21 February

In Laos the government and the Pathet Lao signed a cease burn down understanding, the Vientiane Treaty. The understanding was violated frequently, just by the end of Apr nearly fighting had ceased.[24]

: 51–3

PAVN prisoner release, Thach Han River, 24 February

26 Feb

The International Guarantee Conference, fix to supervise the Paris Peace Accords, took identify in Paris. The principal upshot was violations of the in-place ceasefire chosen for in the accord. The PRG representative accused the S Vietnam of “thousands” of war machine sweeps to take control of additional areas; the Due south Vietnamese representative charged the VC with 4,595 violations of the ceasefire.[6]

: 182

March

[edit]

The official communist party publication of N Vietnam outlined two scenarios for the future: victory in South Vietnam through political struggle or victory through a armed forces victory. The first alternative and the implementation of the Paris Peace Accords was preferred to protect areas in Due south Vietnam controlled by communist forces and to forestall the return of the U.Due south. to active participation in the state of war. The strategy would be “revolutionary struggle” to destabilize South Vietnam, with the possibility of avoiding a full scale resumption of the state of war.[33]

March to 17 May

The PAVN began the Battle of Hồng Ngự attacking the border town of Hồng Ngự in Dong Thap Province in order to interdict supply convoys into Cambodia. The boxing resulted in 422 PAVN killed, 94 ARVN killed and 36 missing and over 300 civilians killed.[30]

: 44–5

210 prisoners from the Bien Hoa POW Camp decline repatriation and want to remain in Due south Vietnam

17 March

The last South Korean soldier left South Vietnam.[34]

A disgruntled pro-Sihanouk Central khmer Air Force (KAF) pilot flying a T-28D fighter-bomber attacked the Presidential Palace in Phnom Penh killing 43 people and injuring a further 35. The pilot then flew to Hainan Island. This incident led to the dismissal of KAF commander Brigadier General So Satto.[35]

eighteen March

The International Commission of Control and Supervision, created to supervise the Paris Peace Accords, reported that “the finish burn down [has] not… been effective” with numerous violations by South Vietnam, North Vietnam and the Viet Cong. “None of the Vietnamese parties wanted the kind of peace promised by the agreement” was the conclusion of one scholar.[vi]

: 182–three

19 March

An Air Vietnam DC-4 on a flying from Saigon to Buôn Ma Thuột crashed 6.5 km south of Buôn Ma Thuột killing all 58 onboard after a bomb exploded in the cargo hold.[36]

25 March to 12 April 1974

Tonle Cham Army camp in March 1967

The PAVN began the Battle of Tong Le Chon besieging the Tonle Cham Military camp. The defending Southward Vietnamese Rangers would somewhen evacuate the campsite.[30]

: 43

29 March

The last American combat troops left Vietnam every bit per the Paris Peace Accords. The U.S. armed forces control in South Vietnam, MACV ceased to exist and was replaced by the Defense Attaché Office (DAO) under the command of Major General John East. Murray. Fewer than 250 U.S. military personnel remained in Vietnam assigned to the DAO plus a few Marines for protection of the U.Due south. Embassy.[37]
About 8,500 civilians working for the U.S. regime remained in Due south Vietnam.[38]

An official publication of Northward Vietnam summed up the pluses and minuses of the peace agreement. On the positive side for North Vietnam, the U.S. had ended its military operations in both South and North Vietnam and had begun to remove mines from coastal waters of North Vietnam. On the negative side, the ceasefire had not been effective, although combat was non as intensive as earlier, and the U.S. connected to support Southward Vietnam by turning over its war machine bases and providing weapons and other military material to Southward Vietnam.[39]

April

[edit]

1 April

The last known American Pw, Helm Robert White, was released by North Vietnam.[25]

two April

Thiệu concluded a two-day visit to the United States. Nixon promised continued economic aid to South Vietnam, dependent upon U.South. congressional blessing, and Thiệu pledged to never enquire the United States to reintroduce American troops into South Vietnam.[38]

: 339

7 April

Two ICCS helicopters were fired on by the PAVN nigh Road 9, Quảng Trị Province. One helicopter managed to country safely while the other was hit by an SA-7 missile killing all nine onboard including two Hungarian, 1 Canadian and one Indonesian ICCS observers.[30]

: 36

nineteen April

The USAF began
Giant Scale
SR-71 reconnaissance missions along the periphery of North Vietnam, these connected on an average of once a calendar week throughout 1973.[40]

June

[edit]

8 June to 16 September

The PAVN began the Battle of Trung Nghia by capturing the hamlet of Trung Nghia in the Key Highlands. The ARVN would eventually recapture the area.[30]

: 47–53

thirteen June

The U.S. and North Vietnam issued a articulation communique calling on all parties to observe the 28 January ceasefire agreement with event from 15 June.[41]
[xxx]

: 50

19 June

The Example–Church Amendment canonical past the U.S. Congress and signed into police force prohibited further U.S. military activity in Vietnam, Laos and Kingdom of cambodia afterward fifteen Baronial 1973. This concluded directly U.S. military involvement in the Vietnam War, although the U.S. continued to provide armed forces equipment and economic back up to the Due south Vietnamese regime.[42]

21 June

Graham Martin was appointed as United states of america Ambassador to South Vietnam replacing Ellsworth Bunker.[43]

thirty June

The U.S. Embassy in Saigon reported that, in accordance with secret agreements betwixt the U.S. and North Vietnam, the North Vietnamese had withdrawn 30,000 soldiers from Southward Vietnam. However, the Diplomatic mission warned that the military units had been refitted and could exist redeployed back to South Vietnam.[thirty]

: 45

thirty June

The last American, Dwight Elliot Stone, to be inducted in the U.S. armed forces as a conscript began his war machine service. Stone had been drafted in 1972, simply his entry into service was delayed until this date.[28]

July

[edit]

one July

U.S. aid to Due south Vietnam is projected to subtract from $2.two billion in financial twelvemonth 1973 (July 1972-June 1973) to $1.one billion in financial yr 1974 (July 1973-June 1974).[37]

: 186

2 July

James Schlesinger replaced Elliot Richardson as U.S. Secretary of Defense.[26]

: 287

17 July

Secretary of Defense James Schlesinger testified before the U.S. Congress that iii,500 American bombing raids had been carried out against Kingdom of cambodia in 1969 and 1970. The raids had been conducted secretly and their extent had not been known until this testimony.[25]

21 July

The plenum of the Communist Party of North Vietnam recommended the escalation of political activity and military activeness in South Vietnam “in response to Saigon’s flagrant and continued violations of the ceasefire.” However, the Politburo decided that all-out war was not feasible and that North Vietnam would continue to express adherence to the Paris Peace Accords.[6]

: 185–vi

27 July

Mine explosion during Operation End Sweep

Performance End Sweep ended. In accord with the Paris Peace Accords, the U.S. Navy cleared all naval mines from N Vietnamese coastal waters.[44]

30 July

The total U.S. military presence in Southward Vietnam, in accord with the Paris Peace Accords, is at present less than 250, excluding the Marine guards at the U.South. Diplomatic mission in Saigon.[37]

: 186

August

[edit]

half-dozen August

Three B-52s accidentally bomb Neak Loeung, Cambodia killing or wounding over 400 civilians.[45]

xv August

The last bombing by American planes anywhere in Indochina took place when B-52s hit a target in Cambodia.[46]
The intense bombing of Cambodia since February 1973 by the U.South. prevented the capture of Phnom Penh by the Central khmer Rouge. Withal, Phnom Penh remained encircled by the Khmer Rouge.[24]

: 54

xx August

The 1973 Laotian coup was a final attempt to stave off a communist coalition government of the Kingdom of Lao people’s democratic republic. Exiled General Thao Ma returned from Thailand on 20 August 1973 to accept over Wattay International Airport outside the majuscule of Vientiane. Commandeering a T-28, he led air strikes upon the part and home of his hated rival, General Kouprasith Abhay. While Thao Ma was unsuccessfully bombing Kouprasith, loyal RLA troops retook the airfield. Shot downwardly upon his return, Thao Ma was hauled from his aeroplane’s wreckage and executed. The coalition agreement was signed 14 September 1973.[23]

: 406–7

xxx Baronial

The VC killed 7 ARVN soldiers and wounded xx government soldiers and civilians in the Shelling of Cai Lay schoolyard.[47]

September

[edit]

21 September

The last Marine units leave Royal Thai Air Base Nam Phong.[26]

: 287

22 September

The PAVN 26th Regiment, 320th Division supported by artillery and tanks captured Plei Djereng Campsite in the Key Highlands. 200 of the 293 Rangers at the camp were killed or captured during the battle. PAVN casualties are not known only the RVNAF claimed iii T-54 tanks destroyed during the battle[xxx]

: 99–100

23 September

Henry Kissinger became United states Secretary of State replacing William P. Rogers.[48]

Oct

[edit]

3 October

In the Battle of Ap Da Bien ARVN forces attacked the PAVN 207th Regiment killing over 200 PAVN.

23 October

Henry Kissinger and Lê Đức Thọ were jointly awarded the 1973 Nobel Peace Prize for their efforts in negotiating the Paris Peace Accords. However, Thọ declined to have the award, challenge that peace had not nonetheless been established and that the United States and the South Vietnamese governments were in violation of the Accords.[49]

30 October to 10 Dec

In the Battle of Quang Duc PAVN forces attempted to expand their logistical network from Kingdom of cambodia into South Vietnam merely were eventually force dorsum by the ARVN.[30]

: 56–threescore

Nov

[edit]

6 November

A PAVN rocket set on on Bien Hoa Air Base destroyed iii RVNAF F-5As.[30]

: 75

seven Nov

The U.Due south. Congress adopted, over the President’s veto, the State of war Powers Resolution of 1973 (50 U.S.C. 1541–1548) providing that the President tin can send U.Due south. armed forces into action abroad just by authority of Congress or if the United States is already nether attack or serious threat. The War Powers Resolution requires the president to notify Congress within 48 hours of committing armed forces to military machine activity and forbids military machine from remaining for more than 60 days, with a further 30-twenty-four hours withdrawal menses, without an say-so of the use of military machine force or a declaration of war. The resolution was passed by 2-thirds of Congress, overriding a presidential veto.

Dec

[edit]

3 December

The VC hit the Nhà Bè fuel depot, the largest fuel storage facility in South Vietnam with approximately fourscore% of the nation’s storage capacity, with rocket fire destroying or damaging thirty fuel tanks and igniting over 600,000 barrels of fuel.[50]

15 December

Captain Richard Morgan Rees serving with Field Team 6, Control Squad B, Headquarters, Articulation Casualty Resolution Center was killed when VC forces ambushed a articulation U.s.a.-Southward Vietnamese team engaged on an MIA recovery mission 15 miles (24 km) southwest of Saigon. A South Vietnamese pilot was also killed in the attack and another iv Americans were wounded. Every bit a effect of this attack all US MIA field recovery efforts were indefinitely suspended.[41]

: half dozen–vii

[51]

31 December

Only 50 U.S. military personnel remained in Vietnam. South Vietnamese armed forces totaled ane.1 million. 233,748 S Vietnamese have been killed in combat as of this date.[52]

Year in numbers

[edit]

Armed Force KIA Reference Armed services costs – 1971 War machine costs in 2022 US$ Reference

S Vietnam
27,901

United states of america
68 [3]

North Vietnam

References

[edit]


  1. ^


    “This Day in History: Terminal US Combat Troops Withdraw from Vietnam”.
    VOA News. United States Authorities. Retrieved
    sixteen October
    2020
    .



  2. ^


    Clarke, Jeffrey (1988).
    United States Army in Vietnam: Advice and Support: The Final Years, 1965-1973. Heart of Armed services History, United States Ground forces. ISBN978-1518612619.


    Public Domain
    This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain
    .
  3. ^


    a




    b




    “Statistical information about casualties of the Vietnam War”.
    National Archives and Records Administration. Usa Government. Archived from the original on 26 Jan 2010. Retrieved
    6 March
    2010
    .



  4. ^


    Young, Marilyn (1991). “14”.
    The Vietnam Wars 1945-1990. ISBN9780060921071.



  5. ^


    Fox Butterfield (two January 1973). “Pause in bombing is ended by U.Due south., officials signal”.
    The New York Times. p. one.


  6. ^


    a




    b




    c




    d




    due east




    f




    g




    h




    i




    j




    k




    l




    yard




    northward




    o




    p




    q




    r




    Asselin, Pierre (2002).
    A Biting Peace: Washington, Hanoi, and the Making of the Paris Understanding. University of North Carolina Press. ISBN978-0807854174.



  7. ^


    Anthony Ripley (3 January 1973). “Report of damage to Hanoi hospital confirmed by U.S.”.
    The New York Times. p. 1.



  8. ^


    “Cambodia clashes reported”.
    The New York Times. 3 January 1973. p. 3.



  9. ^


    “U.S. continues bombing of N Vietnam below the 20th Parallel”.
    The New York Times. 4 January 1973. p. 2.



  10. ^


    “Phnom Penh base of operations shelled”.
    The New York Times. 4 January 1973. p. ii.



  11. ^


    Craig Whitney (5 January 1973). “U.S. reports loss of 16th B-52”.
    The New York Times. p. two.



  12. ^


    “U.Southward. lists five killed in war last week”.
    The New York Times. 5 January 1973. p. 2.



  13. ^


    “North Vietnam says 1,318 died in the raids on Hanoi”.
    The New York Times. 5 January 1973. p. iii.



  14. ^


    Joseph Treaster (half-dozen January 1973). “Foe’south basis attacks ascension but U.Southward. calls them minor”.
    The New York Times. p. iii.



  15. ^


    “President insists on a “proper kind” of Vietnam pact”.
    The New York Times. 6 January 1973. p. one.



  16. ^


    “Cambodians report setback”.
    The New York Times. 6 January 1973. p. 3.



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External links

[edit]


  • Media related to Vietnam War in 1973 at Wikimedia Commons



The Cease Fire That Ended the Vietnam War Resulted in

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1973_in_the_Vietnam_War

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