Which Best Describes the Relationship Between Dna Genes and Chromosomes

Which Best Describes the Relationship Between Dna Genes and Chromosomes

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Chromosomes are structures within a cell nucleus that are made upward of many genes. Genes contain deoxyribonucleic acid (Deoxyribonucleic acid), which contain the genetic information used to synthesize proteins.

Chromosomes are long strands within a cell that tin can incorporate hundreds or thousands of genes. Humans take anywhere from 20,000 to 30,000 genes. Each human prison cell has a pair of 23 chromosomes, which yields a full of 46 chromosomes. Genes aid form traits, and more than than one factor can create a certain trait. Genes sometimes contain genetic abnormalities or acquired mutations, which in turn influence how traits develop. Within genes, deoxyribonucleic acid (Dna) contains four building blocks, which are adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine. The guild of these bases shapes the genome’s instructions.

Chromosomal Pairings

Despite chromosomes having a large number of genes, those genes are arranged in a very specific sequence. Each gene has a special place within a chromosome, which is called its locus. Virtually cells in the human body have 23 pairs of chromosomes, with the exception of a few cells like red blood cells, egg cells and sperm. Each pair of chromosomes contains genetic data from a mother cell and a male parent jail cell. Of the 23 pairs of chromosomes within a cell, 22 are nonsex chromosomes, or autosomal chromosomes. The final pair of chromosomes contains the sex chromosomes, which are X and Y. The pairing of the sex cells determines the offspring’s gender. Males have one Ten chromosome and one Y chromosome. The X originates from the mother, and the Y chromosome comes from the father. Females, in dissimilarity, have two X chromosomes. I chromosome comes from the mother and the other comes from the father. Ordinarily, genes in the nonsex chromosomes can exist fully expressed. Occasionally, however, bug arise wherein this is not the instance. Depending on the aberration, people can exist born with or develop balmy to severe developmental problems.

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Chromosomal Abnormalities

Abnormalities that arise in chromosomes can take several different forms. Chromosomal abnormalities can ascend every bit a result of an aberrant number of chromosomes or when an area of the chromosome develops abnormally, such as sections that are accidentally deleted or placed in a dissimilar chromosome, which is chosen translocation. Having an aberrant number of chromosomes tin can create serious complications. Having an actress nonsex chromosome or defective a nonsex chromosome, for instance, can exist fatal to a fetus. It tin can also crusade developmental problems, such equally Down syndrome, which appears in genetics as a person having 3 copies of chromosome 21. Big areas of chromosome that are abnormal tin can be due to a genetic disorder or an acquired mutation. One instance of this abnormality is chronic myelogenous leukemia, which arises when office of chromosome 9 is translocated to chromosome 22.

Genetic Defects

Sometimes, people have genetic abnormalities without suffering from harmful effects. Humans have about 300 to 400 abnormal genes, merely they are less likely to develop problems if ane function of the affected chromosome is nevertheless normal. Disorders arise when an private has two copies of the same abnormal genes. The likelihood of an individual developing a disorder is college in people whose parents have genetic abnormalities than in people whose parents do not accept any genetic issues.

Which Best Describes the Relationship Between Dna Genes and Chromosomes

Source: https://www.reference.com/science/relationship-between-chromosomes-dna-genes-fdac6aaa7159c8c6?utm_content=params%3Ao%3D740005%26ad%3DdirN%26qo%3DserpIndex&ueid=4b38ffb0-69f4-47fc-a7e6-951c2136b01a