Which of the Following is True of Askia the Great

Which of the Following is True of Askia the Great

Learning Objective

  • Explain the importance of Timbuktu after locating the Songhai Empire

Key Points

  • The Songhai Empire was a state that dominated the western Sahel in the 15th and 16th centuries. At its pinnacle, it was 1 of the largest states in African history. Initially, the empire was ruled by the Sonni dynasty (c. 1464–1493), but it was later replaced by the Askiya dynasty (1493–1591).
  • In the 2nd half of the 14th century, disputes over succession weakened the Mali Empire and in the 1430s Songhai, previously a Mali dependency, gained independence under the Sonni Dynasty.
  • Sonni Ali reigned from 1464 to 1492. In the late 1460s, he conquered many of the Songhai’s neighboring states, including what remained of the Republic of mali Empire. He was arguably the empire’s near formidable military strategist and conqueror. Under his rule, Songhai reached a size of over 1,400,000 square kilometers.
  • The internal political chaos and multiple ceremonious wars within the empire allowed Morocco to invade Songhai. The main reason for the Moroccan invasion was to seize control of and revive the trans-Saharan trade in salt and gold. The empire cruel to the Moroccans and their firearms in 1591.
  • The empire’south power was linked to economic trade; their government system granted say-so to local chiefs as long every bit they did not undermine Songhai policy and tightly controlled labor segmentation arrangement.

Terms

Timbuktu

A historical and still-inhabited city in the West African nation of Mali, situated 20 km (12 mi) north of the River Niger on the southern edge of the Sahara Desert. In its Gilt Historic period, the town’s numerous Islamic scholars and extensive trading network enabled an of import book trade. Together with the campuses of the Sankore Madrasah, an Islamic university, this established the city as a scholarly center in Africa.

Sahel

The ecoclimatic and biogeographic zone of transition in Africa between the Sahara to the due north and the Sudanian Savanna to the south. Having a semi-arid climate, it stretches across the south-central latitudes of Northern Africa between the Atlantic Ocean and the Red Ocean.

Sonni dynasty

A dynasty of rulers of the Songhai Empire of medieval W Africa. The showtime ruler of the dynasty, Sunni Ali Kulun, probably reigned at the cease of the fourteenth century. The concluding ruler, Sonni Baru, ruled until 1493 when the throne was usurped by the Askiya Muhammad I (known likewise as Askia the Great), the founder of the Askiya Dynasty.

Gao

A metropolis in Mali located on the River Niger that for much of its history was an important commercial eye involved in the trans-Saharan merchandise. Towards the stop of the 13th century, it became part of the Mali Empire, but in the first half of the 15th century the boondocks regained its independence and with the conquests of Sonni Ali (ruled 1464–1492) it became the capital of the Songhai Empire.

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Introduction

The Songhai Empire (also transliterated as Songhay) was a land that dominated the western Sahel in the 15th and 16th centuries. At its peak, information technology was one of the largest states in African history. The state is known by its historiographical name, derived from its leading indigenous group and ruling elite, the Songhai. Sonni Ali established Gao as the capital of the empire, although a Songhai state had existed in and around Gao since the 11th century. Other important cities in the empire were Timbuktu and Djenné, conquered in 1468 and 1475 respectively, where urban-centered trade flourished. Initially, the empire was ruled by the Sonni dynasty (c. 1464–1493), but information technology was later replaced by the Askiya dynasty (1493–1591).

During the second half of the 13th century, Gao and the surrounding region had grown into an important trading middle and attracted the interest of the expanding Republic of mali Empire. Mali conquered Gao towards the end of the 13th century and the town would remain under Malian hegemony until the late 14th century. But as the Mali Empire started to disintegrate, the Songhai reasserted control of Gao. Songhai rulers subsequently took reward of the weakened Mali Empire to expand Songhai rule.

Imperial Songhai

In the 2d half of the 14th century, disputes over succession weakened the Republic of mali Empire and in the 1430s, Songhai, previously a Mali dependency, gained independence nether the Sonni Dynasty. Effectually thirty years afterwards, Sonni Sulayman Dama attacked Mema, the Mali province west of Timbuktu, paving the manner for his successor, Sonni Ali, to plow his country into 1 of the greatest empires sub-Saharan Africa has ever seen.

Sonni Ali reigned from 1464 to 1492. Similar Songhai kings before him, he was a Muslim. In the late 1460s, he conquered many of the Songhai’due south neighboring states, including what remained of the Mali Empire. He was arguably the empire’southward most formidable military strategist and conquistador. Under his rule, Songhai reached a size of over one,400,000 foursquare kilometers. During his campaigns for expansion, Ali conquered many lands, repelling attacks from the Mossi to the southward and overcoming the Dogon people to the north. He annexed Timbuktu in 1468, after Islamic leaders of the town requested his aid in overthrowing marauding Tuaregs (Berber people with a traditionally nomadic pastoralist lifestyle) who had taken the city post-obit the decline of Republic of mali. However, Ali met stark resistance afterward setting his sights on the wealthy and renowned trading boondocks of Djenné (also known every bit Jenne). After a persistent seven-year siege, he was able to forcefully incorporate it into his vast empire in 1473, but only after having starved its citizens into surrender

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Oral traditions nowadays a conflicted paradigm of Sonni Ali. On the one hand, the invasion of Timbuktu destroyed the city; Ali was described as an intolerant tyrant who conducted a repressive policy against the scholars of Timbuktu, especially those of the Sankore region who were associated with the Tuareg. On the other hand, his command of critical trade routes and cities brought great wealth. He is thus frequently presented as a powerful pol and great military commander and under his reign, Djenné and Timbuktu became great centers of learning.

Songhai Empire in 1500. Songhai rulers took reward of the weakened Mali Empire to expanded Songhai rule. Under the rule of Sonni Ali, the Songhai surpassed the Malian Empire in area, wealth, and ability, absorbing vast areas of the Mali Empire and reaching its greatest extent.

Following Ali’southward reign, Askia the Great strengthened the Songhai Empire and made information technology the largest empire in West Africa’south history. At its tiptop under his reign, the Songhai Empire encompassed the Hausa states equally far as Kano (in present-solar day Nigeria) and much of the territory that had belonged to the Songhai empire in the w. His policies resulted in a rapid expansion of trade with Europe and Asia, the creation of many schools, and the establishment of Islam as an integral part of the empire. Askia opened religious schools, constructed mosques, and opened up his courtroom to scholars and poets from throughout the Muslim globe, but he was too tolerant of other religions and did not force Islam on his people. Among his great accomplishments was an interest in astronomical noesis, which led to the development of astronomy and observatories in the capital.

Not only was he a patron of Islam only he was likewise gifted in assistants and encouraging trade. He centralized the administration of the empire and established an efficient bureaucracy that was responsible for, among other things, tax collection and the administration of justice. He too demanded that canals exist congenital in order to heighten agriculture, which would eventually increment trade. More importantly than annihilation he did for merchandise was the introduction of weights and measures and the engagement of an inspector for each of Songhai’s important trading centers. During his reign Islam became more widely entrenched, trans-Saharan trade flourished, and the Saharan common salt mines of Taghaza were brought inside the boundaries of the empire.

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Nevertheless, as Askia the Great grew older, his power declined. In 1528, his sons revolted against him and declared Musa, one of Askia’s many sons, equally king. Following Musa’s overthrow in 1531, Songhai’s empire went into refuse. Multiple attempts at governing the empire by Askia’s sons and grandsons failed and betwixt the political anarchy and multiple civil wars within the empire, Morocco invaded Songhai. The main reason for the Moroccan invasion of Songhai was to seize control and revive the trans-Saharan trade in salt and golden. The Songhai military, during Askia’s reign, consisted of total-time soliders, but the king never modernized his regular army. The Empire fell to the Moroccans and their firearms in 1591.

The System of Songhai

At its summit, the Songhai city of Timbuktu became a thriving cultural and commercial center where Arab, Italian, and Jewish merchants all gathered for merchandise. Economical trade existed throughout the empire due to the standing army stationed in the provinces. Central to the regional economy were contained gold fields. The
Julla (merchants) would form partnerships, and the country would protect these merchants and the port cities of the Niger.

The Songhai economy was based on a association system. The clan a person belonged to ultimately decided one’s occupation. The most common were metalworkers, fishermen, and carpenters. Lower degree participants consisted of by and large not-farm working immigrants, who at times were provided special privileges and held high positions in club. At the top were noblemen and direct descendants of the original Songhai people, followed by freemen and traders. At the bottom were war captives and European slaves obligated to labor, especially in farming.  Historian James Olson describes the labor arrangement equally resembling modern day unions, with the empire possessing arts and crafts guilds that consisted of various mechanics and artisans

Criminal justice in Songhai was based mainly, if not entirely, on Islamic principles, especially during the rule of Askia the Great. Upper classes in society converted to Islam while lower classes often continued to follow traditional religions. Sermons emphasized obedience to the rex. Sonni Ali established a organization of regime under the regal court, later to be expanded by Askia, which appointed governors and mayors to preside over local tributary states situated around the Niger valley. Local chiefs were notwithstanding granted authorisation over their respective domains every bit long equally they did not undermine Songhai policy.

Revenue enhancement was imposed onto peripheral chiefdoms and provinces to ensure the dominance of Songhai, and in return these provinces were given almost complete autonomy. Songhai rulers but intervened in the diplomacy of these neighboring states when a situation became volatile, normally an isolated incident. Each boondocks was represented by authorities officials, holding positions and responsibilities like to today’s central bureaucrats.

Which of the Following is True of Askia the Great

Source: https://courses.lumenlearning.com/atd-herkimer-worldcivilization/chapter/songhai/