How Are Meiosis and Mitosis Different Apex

How Are Meiosis and Mitosis Different Apex

11.4: The Process of Meiosis – Comparing Meiosis and Mitosis

  • Page ID
    13251
  • Learning Objectives
    • Compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis

    Mitosis and meiosis are both forms of division of the nucleus in eukaryotic cells. They share some similarities, but also exhibit singled-out differences that lead to very different outcomes. The purpose of mitosis is cell regeneration, growth, and asexual reproduction,while the purpose of meiosis is the product of gametes for sexual reproduction. Mitosis is a single nuclear segmentation that results in two nuclei that are usually partitioned into two new daughter cells. The nuclei resulting from a mitotic division are genetically identical to the original nucleus. They have the same number of sets of chromosomes, one set in the case of haploid cells and ii sets in the case of diploid cells. In most plants and all animal species, it is typically diploid cells that undergo mitosis to form new diploid cells. In contrast, meiosis consists of two nuclear divisions resulting in 4 nuclei that are ordinarily partitioned into four new haploid daughter cells. The nuclei resulting from meiosis are not genetically identical and they contain i chromosome ready only. This is half the number of chromosome sets in the original cell, which is diploid.

    Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\): Comparing Meiosis and Mitosis: Meiosis and mitosis are both preceded by one circular of Dna replication; however, meiosis includes 2 nuclear divisions. The iv daughter cells resulting from meiosis are haploid and genetically distinct. The girl cells resulting from mitosis are diploid and identical to the parent cell.

    The master differences between mitosis and meiosis occur in meiosis I. In meiosis I, the homologous chromosome pairs become associated with each other and are leap together with the synaptonemal complex. Chiasmata develop and crossover occurs between homologous chromosomes, which then line upwards along the metaphase plate in tetrads with kinetochore fibers from opposite spindle poles attached to each kinetochore of a homolog in a tetrad. All of these events occur only in meiosis I.

    When the tetrad is broken up and the homologous chromosomes move to opposite poles, the ploidy level is reduced from two to one. For this reason, meiosis I is referred to as a reduction division. In that location is no such reduction in ploidy level during mitosis.

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    Meiosis II is much more similar to a mitotic partition. In this case, the duplicated chromosomes (only one prepare, equally the homologous pairs have now been separated into two different cells) line up on the metaphase plate with divided kinetochores attached to kinetochore fibers from contrary poles. During anaphase Ii and mitotic anaphase, the kinetochores divide and sister chromatids, now referred to as chromosomes, are pulled to opposite poles. The two daughter cells of mitosis, however, are identical, dissimilar the daughter cells produced by meiosis. They are different because there has been at least one crossover per chromosome. Meiosis Ii is non a reduction division because, although there are fewer copies of the genome in the resulting cells, at that place is withal i set of chromosomes, as there was at the terminate of meiosis I. Meiosis Two is, therefore, referred to every bit equatorial sectionalization.

    Primal Points

    • For the most office, in mitosis, diploid cells are partitioned into two new diploid cells, while in meiosis, diploid cells are partitioned into four new haploid cells.
    • In mitosis, the daughter cells have the same number of chromosomes every bit the parent jail cell, while in meiosis, the girl cells have half the number of chromosomes as the parent.
    • The daughter cells produced by mitosis are identical, whereas the daughter cells produced by meiosis are different because crossing over has occurred.
    • The events that occur in meiosis but not mitosis include homologous chromosomes pairing upwardly, crossing over, and lining upward along the metaphase plate in tetrads.
    • Meiosis Ii and mitosis are not reduction segmentation like meiosis I considering the number of chromosomes remains the aforementioned; therefore, meiosis Ii is referred to equally equatorial division.
    • When the homologous chromosomes separate and move to opposite poles during meiosis I, the ploidy level is reduced from two to i, which is referred to as a reduction segmentation.
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    Key Terms

    • reduction division: the start of the two divisions of meiosis, a type of cell division
    • ploidy: the number of homologous sets of chromosomes in a prison cell
    • equatorial partition: a process of nuclear segmentation in which each chromosome divides every bit such that the number of chromosomes remains the same from parent to daughter cells

    Contributions and Attributions

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    How Are Meiosis and Mitosis Different Apex

    Source: https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Introductory_and_General_Biology/Book%3A_General_Biology_(Boundless)/11%3A_Meiosis_and_Sexual_Reproduction/11.04%3A_The_Process_of_Meiosis_-_Comparing_Meiosis_and_Mitosis

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