Which Statement is True of the Federalist Papers

Which Statement is True of the Federalist Papers

Series of 85 essays arguing in favor of the ratification of the US Constitution

The Federalist Papers

Championship page of the first collection of
The Federalist
(1788). This particular book was a gift from Alexander Hamilton’s wife Elizabeth Schuyler Hamilton to her sister Angelica

  • Alexander Hamilton
  • James Madison
  • John Jay

(all under the pseudonym ‘Publius’)

Original title The Federalist
Country United States
Linguistic communication English
  • The Independent Journal
  • New York Parcel
  • The Daily Advertiser
  • J. & A. McLean

Publication date

Oct 27, 1787 – May 28, 1788
Media type
  • Newspaper
  • book

The Federalist Papers

is a collection of 85 articles and essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay nether the collective pseudonym “Publius” to promote the ratification of the Constitution of the United States. The collection was commonly known as

The Federalist

until the name
The Federalist Papers
emerged in the 20th century.

The start 77 of these essays were published serially in the
Independent Journal, the
New York Packet, and
The Daily Advertiser
between Oct 1787 and April 1788.[ane]
A compilation of these 77 essays and 8 others were published in two volumes as

The Federalist: A Drove of Essays, Written in Favour of the New Constitution, as Agreed upon past the Federal Convention, September 17, 1787
, by publishing business firm J. & A. McLean in March and May 1788.[2]
The last eight papers (Nos. 78–85) were republished in the New York newspapers between June 14 and August 16, 1788.

The authors of
The Federalist
intended to influence the voters to ratify the Constitution. In Federalist No. 1, they explicitly set that debate in wide political terms:

Information technology has been oftentimes remarked, that information technology seems to have been reserved to the people of this land, past their conduct and case, to make up one’s mind the important question, whether societies of men are really capable or non, of establishing good regime from reflection and choice, or whether they are forever destined to depend, for their political constitutions, on accident and forcefulness.[4]

In Federalist No. 10, Madison discusses the ways of preventing rule by bulk faction and advocates a large, commercial republic. This is complemented by Federalist No. 14, in which Madison takes the measure of the United States, declares information technology appropriate for an extended republic, and concludes with a memorable defence force of the constitutional and political creativity of the Federal Convention.[5]

In Federalist No. 84, Hamilton makes the case that there is no need to amend the Constitution by adding a Bill of Rights, insisting that the various provisions in the proposed Constitution protecting liberty amount to a “beak of rights.”[6]
Federalist No. 78, also written by Hamilton, lays the groundwork for the doctrine of judicial review by federal courts of federal legislation or executive acts. Federalist No. 70 presents Hamilton’south case for a 1-human being chief executive. In Federalist No. 39, Madison presents the clearest exposition of what has come to be chosen “Federalism”. In Federalist No. 51, Madison distills arguments for checks and balances in an essay oftentimes quoted for its justification of government as “the greatest of all reflections on human being nature.” According to historian Richard B. Morris, the essays that make upwardly
The Federalist Papers
are an “unequalled exposition of the Constitution, a classic in political science unsurpassed in both latitude and depth by the product of any later American writer.”[7]

On June 21, 1788, the proposed Constitution was ratified past the minimum of nine states required under Article VII. Towards the end of July 1788, with eleven states having ratified the new Constitution, the process of organizing the new regime began.[
commendation needed





The Federal Convention (Constitutional Convention) sent the proposed Constitution to the Confederation Congress, which in turn submitted information technology to u.s. for ratification at the terminate of September 1787. On September 27, 1787, “Cato” offset appeared in the New York press criticizing the proffer; “Brutus” followed on October 18, 1787.[8]
These and other manufactures and public messages critical of the new Constitution would eventually become known as the “Anti-Federalist Papers”. In response, Alexander Hamilton decided to launch a measured defense and extensive explanation of the proposed Constitution to the people of the state of New York. He wrote in Federalist No. 1 that the series would “try to give a satisfactory reply to all the objections which shall have made their appearance, that may seem to have any claim to your attention.”[9]

Hamilton recruited collaborators for the project. He enlisted John Jay, who after four strong essays (Federalist Nos. 2, 3, four, and 5), cruel ill and contributed merely 1 more essay, Federalist No. 64, to the serial. Jay also distilled his case into a pamphlet in the jump of 1788,
An Address to the People of the State of New-York;[10]
Hamilton cited it agreeably in Federalist No. 85. James Madison, present in New York as a Virginia delegate to the Confederation Congress, was recruited by Hamilton and Jay and became Hamilton’s main collaborator. Gouverneur Morris and William Duer were also considered. Notwithstanding, Morris turned downward the invitation, and Hamilton rejected three essays written by Duer.[11]
Duer later wrote in support of the three Federalist authors under the name “Philo-Publius”, pregnant either “Friend of the People” or “Friend of Hamilton” based on Hamilton’due south pen name

Alexander Hamilton chose the pseudonymous name “Publius”. While many other pieces representing both sides of the ramble debate were written under Roman names, historian Albert Furtwangler contends that
‘Publius’ was a cut to a higher place ‘Caesar’ or ‘Brutus’ or even ‘Cato’. Publius Valerius helped found the ancient republic of Rome. His more than famous name, Publicola, meant ‘friend of the people’.”[12]
Hamilton had practical this pseudonym to three messages in 1778, in which he attacked swain Federalist Samuel Hunt and revealed that Hunt had taken advantage of knowledge gained in Congress to try to dominate the flour market place.[12]


James Madison, Hamilton’due south major collaborator, later fourth President of the United States (1809-1817)

At the time of publication, the authors of
The Federalist Papers
attempted to hide their identities due to Hamilton and Madison having attended the convention.[13]
Astute observers, however, correctly discerned the identities of Hamilton, Madison, and Jay. Establishing authorial authenticity of the essays that constitute
The Federalist Papers
has non always been articulate. After Alexander Hamilton died in 1804, a list emerged, claiming that he alone had written two-thirds of
The Federalist
essays. Some believe that several of these essays were written past James Madison (Nos. 49–58 and 62–63). The scholarly detective work of Douglass Adair in 1944 postulated the following assignments of authorship, corroborated in 1964 by a estimator analysis of the text:[xiv]

  • Alexander Hamilton (51 articles: Nos. 1, six–9, 11–thirteen, fifteen–17, 21–36, 59–61, and 65–85)
  • James Madison (29 articles: Nos. 10, 14, 18–xx,[fifteen]
    37–58 and 62–63)
  • John Jay (5 articles: Nos. 2–5 and 64).

In half-dozen months, a total of 85 articles were written past the three men. Hamilton, who had been a leading advocate of national ramble reform throughout the 1780s and was i of the iii representatives for New York at the Constitutional Convention, in 1789 became the first Secretary of the Treasury, a post he held until his resignation in 1795. Madison, who is at present acknowledged every bit the father of the Constitution — despite his repeated rejection of this honor during his lifetime,[16]
became a leading member of the U.S. Business firm of Representatives from Virginia (1789–1797), Secretarial assistant of State (1801–1809), and ultimately the fourth President of the United states (1809–1817).[17]

John Jay, who had been secretary for strange diplomacy under the Articles of Confederation from 1784 through their expiration in 1789, became the get-go Chief Justice of the United States in 1789, stepping down in 1795 to accept election every bit governor of New York, a post he held for 2 terms, retiring in 1801.[
commendation needed



An advertisement for the book edition of
The Federalist

The Federalist
manufactures appeared in iii New York newspapers:
The Independent Journal, the
New-York Packet, and the
Daily Advertiser, kickoff on October 27, 1787. Although written and published with haste,
The Federalist
articles were widely read and greatly influenced the shape of American political institutions.[18]
Hamilton, Madison and Jay published the essays at a rapid pace. At times, three to four new essays past Publius appeared in the papers in a single week. Garry Wills observes that this fast pace of product “overwhelmed” any possible response: “Who, given ample fourth dimension could have answered such a battery of arguments? And no time was given.”[xix]
Hamilton too encouraged the reprinting of the essays in newspapers outside New York state, and indeed they were published in several other states where the ratification argue was taking place. However, they were simply irregularly published exterior New York, and in other parts of the country they were often overshadowed past local writers.[20]

Considering the essays were initially published in New York, nigh of them begin with the same salutation: “To the People of the Land of New York”.

The loftier demand for the essays led to their publication in a more permanent form. On January i, 1788, the New York publishing firm J. & A. McLean appear that they would publish the first 36 essays equally a bound volume; that volume was released on March 22, 1788, and was titled
The Federalist
Book 1.[i]
New essays continued to announced in the newspapers; Federalist No. 77 was the last number to appear first in that form, on April ii. A 2nd bound volume was released on May 28, containing Federalist Nos. 37–77 and the previously unpublished Nos. 78–85.[1]
The last eight papers (Nos. 78–85) were republished in the New York newspapers between June xiv and August 16, 1788.[one]

A 1792 French edition ended the collective anonymity of Publius, announcing that the piece of work had been written by “Mm. Hamilton, Maddisson e Gay, citoyens de l’État de New York”.[21]
In 1802, George Hopkins published an American edition that similarly named the authors. Hopkins wished equally well that “the proper name of the writer should be prefixed to each number,” but at this betoken Hamilton insisted that this was not to be, and the sectionalisation of the essays among the three authors remained a secret.[22]

The starting time publication to dissever the papers in such a way was an 1810 edition that used a listing left by Hamilton to associate the authors with their numbers; this edition appeared as ii volumes of the compiled “Works of Hamilton”. In 1818, Jacob Gideon published a new edition with a new list of authors, based on a list provided by Madison. The difference betwixt Hamilton’due south listing and Madison’s formed the basis for a dispute over the authorship of a dozen of the essays.[23]

Both Hopkins’south and Gideon’s editions incorporated pregnant edits to the text of the papers themselves, more often than not with the approval of the authors. In 1863, Henry Dawson published an edition containing the original text of the papers, arguing that they should exist preserved as they were written in that item historical moment, not equally edited past the authors years after.[24]

Modern scholars generally utilize the text prepared past Jacob Due east. Cooke for his 1961 edition of
The Federalist; this edition used the newspaper texts for essay numbers 1–76 and the McLean edition for essay numbers 77–85.[25]

Disputed essays


John Jay, author of five of
The Federalist Papers, later became the offset Main Justice of the United States

While the authorship of 73 of
The Federalist
essays is fairly certain, the identities of those who wrote the twelve remaining essays are disputed by some scholars. The mod consensus is that Madison wrote essays Nos. 49–58, with Nos. eighteen–20 being products of a collaboration between him and Hamilton; No. 64 was past John Jay. The beginning open designation of which essay belonged to whom was provided by Hamilton who, in the days before his ultimately fatal gun duel with Aaron Burr, provided his lawyer with a list detailing the author of each number. This list credited Hamilton with a total 63 of the essays (three of those being jointly written with Madison), nearly three-quarters of the whole, and was used equally the basis for an 1810 printing that was the outset to make specific attribution for the essays.[26]

Madison did not immediately dispute Hamilton’s list, merely provided his own list for the 1818 Gideon edition of
The Federalist. Madison claimed 29 essays for himself, and he suggested that the difference betwixt the two lists was “owing doubtless to the hurry in which [Hamilton’due south] memorandum was fabricated out.” A known error in Hamilton’southward listing—Hamilton incorrectly ascribed No. 54 to John Jay, when in fact, Jay wrote No. 64—provided some prove for Madison’s suggestion.[27]

Statistical assay has been undertaken on several occasions in attempts to accurately identify the writer of each individual essay. After examining word choice and writing mode, studies generally concur that the disputed essays were written by James Madison. However, there are notable exceptions maintaining that some of the essays which are at present widely attributed to Madison were, in fact, collaborative efforts.[14]

Influence on the ratification debates


The Federalist Papers
were written to support the ratification of the Constitution, specifically in New York. Whether they succeeded in this mission is questionable. Separate ratification proceedings took place in each land, and the essays were non reliably reprinted outside of New York; furthermore, by the time the series was well underway, a number of of import states had already ratified information technology, for example Pennsylvania on December 12. New York held out until July 26; certainly
The Federalist
was more important at that place than anywhere else, but Furtwangler argues that it “could hardly rival other major forces in the ratification contests”—specifically, these forces included the personal influence of well-known Federalists, for instance Hamilton and Jay, and Anti-Federalists, including Governor George Clinton.[thirty]
Further, by the time New York came to a vote, x states had already ratified the Constitution and it had thus already passed—only nine states had to ratify it for the new government to be established among them; the ratification by Virginia, the tenth state, placed pressure level on New York to ratify. In light of that, Furtwangler observes, “New York’south refusal would make that state an odd outsider.”[31]

Only 19 Federalists were elected to New York’southward ratification convention, compared to the Anti-Federalists’ 46 delegates. While New York did indeed ratify the Constitution on July 26, the lack of public support for pro-Constitution Federalists has led historian John Kaminski to suggest that the impact of
The Federalist
on New York citizens was “negligible”.[32]

As for Virginia, which ratified the Constitution just at its convention on June 25, Hamilton writes in a letter to Madison that the nerveless edition of
The Federalist
had been sent to Virginia; Furtwangler presumes that information technology was to act as a “debater’s handbook for the convention there”, though he claims that this indirect influence would be a “dubious distinction”.[33]
Probably of greater importance to the Virginia contend, in any instance, were George Washington’s support for the proposed Constitution and the presence of Madison and Edmund Randolph, the governor, at the convention arguing for ratification.

Construction and content


In Federalist No. one, Hamilton listed six topics to be covered in the subsequent articles:

  1. “The utility of the UNION to your political prosperity”—covered in No. 2 through No. 14
  2. “The insufficiency of the present Confederation to preserve that Wedlock”—covered in No. fifteen through No. 22
  3. “The necessity of a regime at to the lowest degree equally energetic with the 1 proposed to the attainment of this object”—covered in No. 23 through No. 36
  4. “The conformity of the proposed constitution to the true principles of republican government”—covered in No. 37 through No. 84
  5. “Its analogy to your ain state constitution”—covered in No. 85
  6. “The boosted security which its adoption volition afford to the preservation of that species of government, to liberty and to prosperity”—covered in No. 85.[34]

Furtwangler notes that as the series grew, this plan was somewhat changed. The 4th topic expanded into detailed coverage of the individual articles of the Constitution and the institutions it mandated, while the two terminal topics were merely touched on in the terminal essay.

The papers can be broken down by author as well as by topic. At the start of the series, all three authors were contributing; the first xx papers are cleaved down as 11 by Hamilton, five past Madison and 4 by Jay. The rest of the series, however, is dominated past 3 long segments by a unmarried writer: Nos. 21–36 past Hamilton, Nos. 37–58 by Madison, written while Hamilton was in Albany, and No. 65 through the end by Hamilton, published afterwards Madison had left for Virginia.[35]

Opposition to the Beak of Rights


The Federalist Papers
(specifically Federalist No. 84) are notable for their opposition to what later became the Usa Neb of Rights. The idea of adding a Pecker of Rights to the Constitution was originally controversial considering the Constitution, as written, did not specifically enumerate or protect the rights of the people, rather it listed the powers of the government and left all that remained to united states and the people. Alexander Hamilton, the writer of Federalist No. 84, feared that such an enumeration, once written down explicitly, would afterward be interpreted as a listing of the
rights that people had.[
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However, Hamilton’s opposition to a Bill of Rights was far from universal. Robert Yates, writing under the pseudonym “Brutus”, articulated this view point in the and then-called Anti-Federalist No. 84, asserting that a regime unrestrained past such a neb could hands devolve into tyranny. References in
The Federalist
and in the ratification debates warn of demagogues of the variety who through divisive appeals would aim at tyranny.
The Federalist
begins and ends with this issue.[36]
In the final paper Hamilton offers “a lesson of moderation to all sincere lovers of the Union, and ought to put them on their guard against hazarding anarchy, civil war, a perpetual alienation of united states from each other, and maybe the military machine despotism of a successful demagogue”.[37]
The matter was further clarified by the 9th Amendment.

Judicial employ


Federal judges, when interpreting the Constitution, oft employ
The Federalist Papers
as a contemporary account of the intentions of the framers and ratifiers.[38]
They accept been applied on bug ranging from the power of the federal regime in foreign affairs (in
Hines v. Davidowitz) to the validity of ex post facto laws (in the 1798 decision
Calder 5. Bull, plainly the kickoff conclusion to mention
The Federalist).[39]
By 2000[update],
The Federalist
had been quoted 291 times in Supreme Court decisions.[forty]

The corporeality of deference that should exist given to
The Federalist Papers
in ramble interpretation has e’er been somewhat controversial. As early as 1819, Chief Justice John Marshall noted in the famous instance
McCulloch v. Maryland, that “the opinions expressed by the authors of that work have been justly supposed to be entitled to great respect in expounding the Constitution. No tribute can be paid to them which exceeds their merit; but in applying their opinions to the cases which may arise in the progress of our government, a right to approximate of their definiteness must be retained.”[41]
In a letter to Thomas Ritchie in 1821, James Madison stated of the Constitution that “the legitimate pregnant of the Instrument must be derived from the text itself; or if a key is to exist sought elsewhere, it must be not in the opinions or intentions of the Trunk which planned & proposed the Constitution, but in the sense attached to it past the people in their corresponding State Conventions where information technology recd. all the authorisation which information technology possesses.”[42]

Consummate list


The colors used to highlight the rows represent to the writer of the paper.

# Date Championship Writer
1 October 27, 1787 General Introduction Alexander Hamilton
2 Oct 31, 1787 Concerning Dangers from Foreign Force and Influence John Jay
iii November 3, 1787 The Same Subject Continued: Concerning Dangers from Foreign Force and Influence John Jay
4 November seven, 1787 The Same Subject Continued: Concerning Dangers from Strange Force and Influence John Jay
five November 10, 1787 The Same Subject Continued: Concerning Dangers from Strange Force and Influence John Jay
six November 14, 1787 Concerning Dangers from Dissensions Between the States Alexander Hamilton
7 November 15, 1787 The Same Bailiwick Continued: Concerning Dangers from Dissensions Between usa Alexander Hamilton
eight Nov twenty, 1787 The Consequences of Hostilities Between the States Alexander Hamilton
9 November 21, 1787 The Utility of the Spousal relationship as a Safeguard Confronting Domestic Faction and Insurrection Alexander Hamilton
10 Nov 22, 1787 The Same Subject Connected: The Spousal relationship every bit a Safeguard Against Domestic Faction and Insurrection James Madison
xi November 24, 1787 The Utility of the Spousal relationship in Respect to Commercial Relations and a Navy Alexander Hamilton
12 November 27, 1787 The Utility of the Union In Respect to Revenue Alexander Hamilton
13 November 28, 1787 Advantage of the Union in Respect to Economy in Regime Alexander Hamilton
14 Nov 30, 1787 Objections to the Proposed Constitution From Extent of Territory Answered James Madison
15 December 1, 1787 The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union Alexander Hamilton
sixteen Dec 4, 1787 The Same Subject Continued: The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union Alexander Hamilton
17 December 5, 1787 The Same Bailiwick Continued: The Insufficiency of the Nowadays Confederation to Preserve the Union Alexander Hamilton
18 December 7, 1787 The Same Subject Continued: The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union James Madison[fifteen]
nineteen December 8, 1787 The Same Subject Continued: The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union James Madison[15]
xx December 11, 1787 The Aforementioned Subject area Continued: The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union James Madison[15]
21 December 12, 1787 Other Defects of the Nowadays Confederation Alexander Hamilton
22 December fourteen, 1787 The Aforementioned Subject Connected: Other Defects of the Present Confederation Alexander Hamilton
23 December 18, 1787 The Necessity of a Authorities as Energetic equally the One Proposed to the Preservation of the Wedlock Alexander Hamilton
24 Dec 19, 1787 The Powers Necessary to the Common Defense Further Considered Alexander Hamilton
25 Dec 21, 1787 The Same Field of study Connected: The Powers Necessary to the Mutual Defense Further Considered Alexander Hamilton
26 December 22, 1787 The Idea of Restraining the Legislative Authorisation in Regard to the Common Defence force Considered Alexander Hamilton
27 December 25, 1787 The Same Subject Continued: The Idea of Restraining the Legislative Dominance in Regard to the Common Defence force Considered Alexander Hamilton
28 Dec 26, 1787 The Same Subject Connected: The Idea of Restraining the Legislative Say-so in Regard to the Common Defense Considered Alexander Hamilton
29 January 9, 1788 Concerning the Militia Alexander Hamilton
30 December 28, 1787 Concerning the General Ability of Taxation Alexander Hamilton
31 January ane, 1788 The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the General Power of Taxation Alexander Hamilton
32 January 2, 1788 The Same Subject Continued: Apropos the General Power of Taxation Alexander Hamilton
33 January 2, 1788 The Same Subject Connected: Concerning the General Power of Revenue enhancement Alexander Hamilton
34 January 5, 1788 The Aforementioned Discipline Continued: Concerning the Full general Ability of Tax Alexander Hamilton
35 January 5, 1788 The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the General Ability of Revenue enhancement Alexander Hamilton
36 January 8, 1788 The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the General Power of Taxation Alexander Hamilton
37 January eleven, 1788 Concerning the Difficulties of the Convention in Devising a Proper Form of Government James Madison
38 Jan 12, 1788 The Same Subject Continued, and the Incoherence of the Objections to the New Plan Exposed James Madison
39 Jan xvi, 1788 The Conformity of the Plan to Republican Principles James Madison
forty January 18, 1788 The Powers of the convention to Form a Mixed Regime Examined and Sustained James Madison
41 January 19, 1788 General View of the Powers Conferred by the Constitution James Madison
42 January 22, 1788 The Powers Conferred by the Constitution Farther Considered James Madison
43 January 23, 1788 The Same Subject Connected: The Powers Conferred by the Constitution Further Considered James Madison
44 Jan 25, 1788 Restrictions on the Authority of the Several States James Madison
45 January 26, 1788 The Alleged Danger From the Powers of the Union to the Country Governments Considered James Madison
46 Jan 29, 1788 The Influence of the State and Federal Governments Compared James Madison
47 January thirty, 1788 The Particular Structure of the New Government and the Distribution of Ability Among Its Different Parts James Madison
48 Feb ane, 1788 These Departments Should Not Be So Far Separated as to Have No Constitutional Control Over Each Other James Madison
49 February 2, 1788 Method of Guarding Against the Encroachments of Any One Department of Government James Madison[44]
l February 5, 1788 Periodic Appeals to the People Considered James Madison[44]
51 February 6, 1788 The Construction of the Government Must Furnish the Proper Checks and Balances Between the Different Departments James Madison[44]
52 February eight, 1788 The Firm of Representatives James Madison[44]
53 February 9, 1788 The Same Bailiwick Continued: The Business firm of Representatives James Madison[44]
54 February 12, 1788 The Apportionment of Members Amid usa James Madison[44]
55 February 13, 1788 The Total Number of the House of Representatives James Madison[44]
56 Feb 16, 1788 The Same Discipline Continued: The Total Number of the House of Representatives James Madison[44]
57 Feb xix, 1788 The Alleged Tendency of the New Programme to Elevate the Few at the Expense of the Many James Madison[44]
58 Feb xx, 1788 Objection That The Number of Members Volition Not Be Augmented equally the Progress of Population Demands Considered James Madison[44]
59 Feb 22, 1788 Concerning the Power of Congress to Regulate the Ballot of Members Alexander Hamilton
sixty February 23, 1788 The Same Field of study Connected: Concerning the Ability of Congress to Regulate the Election of Members Alexander Hamilton
61 February 26, 1788 The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the Power of Congress to Regulate the Ballot of Members Alexander Hamilton
62 February 27, 1788 The Senate James Madison[44]
63 March i, 1788 The Senate Continued James Madison[44]
64 March 5, 1788 The Powers of the Senate John Jay
65 March seven, 1788 The Powers of the Senate Continued Alexander Hamilton
66 March 8, 1788 Objections to the Power of the Senate To Set equally a Court for Impeachments Further Considered Alexander Hamilton
67 March 11, 1788 The Executive Department Alexander Hamilton
68 March 12, 1788 The Mode of Electing the President Alexander Hamilton
69 March xiv, 1788 The Real Graphic symbol of the Executive Alexander Hamilton
lxx March fifteen, 1788 The Executive Department Further Considered Alexander Hamilton
71 March 18, 1788 The Duration in Role of the Executive Alexander Hamilton
72 March nineteen, 1788 The Same Subject Continued, and Re-Eligibility of the Executive Considered Alexander Hamilton
73 March 21, 1788 The Provision For The Support of the Executive, and the Veto Power Alexander Hamilton
74 March 25, 1788 The Command of the War machine and Naval Forces, and the Pardoning Power of the Executive Alexander Hamilton
75 March 26, 1788 The Treaty Making Power of the Executive Alexander Hamilton
76 April 1, 1788 The Appointing Ability of the Executive Alexander Hamilton
77 April 2, 1788 The Appointing Power Continued and Other Powers of the Executive Considered Alexander Hamilton
78 May 28, 1788 (book)
June fourteen, 1788 (newspaper)
The Judiciary Department Alexander Hamilton
79 May 28, 1788 (volume)
June eighteen, 1788 (newspaper)
The Judiciary Connected Alexander Hamilton
80 June 21, 1788 The Powers of the Judiciary Alexander Hamilton
81 June 25, 1788;
June 28, 1788
The Judiciary Connected, and the Distribution of the Judicial Authority Alexander Hamilton
82 July 2, 1788 The Judiciary Connected Alexander Hamilton
83 July 5, 1788;
July 9, 1788;
July 12, 1788
The Judiciary Continued in Relation to Trial past Jury Alexander Hamilton
84 July 16, 1788;
July 26, 1788;
August 9, 1788
Sure General and Miscellaneous Objections to the Constitution Considered and Answered Alexander Hamilton
85 August 13, 1788;
August 16, 1788
Final Remarks Alexander Hamilton

In popular civilization


The purposes and authorship of
The Federalist Papers
were prominently highlighted in the lyrics of “Non-Stop”, the finale of Human activity 1 in the 2015 Broadway musical
Hamilton, written by Lin-Manuel Miranda.[45]

Come across as well


  • American philosophy
  • The Anti-Federalist Papers
  • The Complete Anti-Federalist
  • Listing of pseudonyms used in the American Ramble debates



  1. ^





    Lloyd, Gordon. “Introduction to the Federalist”. teachingamericanhistory.org. Archived from the original on 2018-06-eighteen. Retrieved

  2. ^

    The Federalist: a Collection of Essays, Written in Favour of the New Constitution, equally Agreed upon by the Federal Convention, September 17, 1787, in two volumes
    (1st ed.). New York: J. & A. McLean. 1788. Archived from the original on 2017-03-16 – via Library of Congress.

  3. ^

    Jackson, Kenneth T., ed. (1995).
    The Encyclopedia of New York City. New-York Historical Society. Yale University Press. p. 194. ISBN978-0-300-05536-8.

  4. ^

    The Federalist Papers
    . Toronto: Runted Books. 1982.

  5. ^

    Wills, 10.

  6. ^

    Hamilton, Alexander (2020).
    The federalist papers. John Jay, James Madison. New York, NY: Open Road Integrated Media. ISBN978-1-5040-6099-eight. OCLC 1143829765.

  7. ^

    Richard B. Morris,
    The Forging of the Union: 1781–1789
    (1987) p. 309

  8. ^

    Furtwangler, pp. 48–49.

  9. ^

    Gunn, Giles B. (1994).
    Early on American Writing. Penguin Classics. p. 540. ISBN978-0-fourteen-039087-2.

  10. ^

    Jay, John. “An Address to the People of the State of New-York”.
    columbia.edu. Columbia Academy Libraries. Archived from the original on 2010-06-27.

    Excerpted from:
    Elliot, Jonathan, ed. (1836–1859).
    The debates in the several state conventions on the adoption of the Federal Constitution: as recommended past the general convention at Philadelphia, in 1787
    (2d ed.). Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott & Co.; Washington: Taylor & Maury. OCLC 656425.

  11. ^

    Furtwangler, pp. 51–56.
  12. ^



    Furtwangler, p. 51.

  13. ^

    Barendt, Eric (2016).
    Anonymous Voice communication: Literature, Constabulary and Politics. New York: Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 38. ISBN9781509904075.

  14. ^



    Mosteller, Frederick; Wallace, David 50. (2012).
    Applied Bayesian and Classical Inference: The Case of
    The Federalist
    . Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN978-1-4612-5256-6.

  15. ^





    Nos. 18, 19, 20 are frequently indicated every bit existence jointly written by Hamilton and Madison. Even so, Adair concurs with previous historians that these are Madison’s writing alone: “Madison had certainly written all of the essays himself, including in revised form only a minor amount of pertinent information submitted past Hamilton from his rather sketchy research on the same field of study.” Adair, 63.

  16. ^

    Banning, Lance.
    James Madison: Federalist, notation 1. Archived 2018-01-13 at the Wayback Machine.

  17. ^

    Come across, east.thou., Ralph Ketcham,
    James Madison. New York: Macmillan, 1971; reprint ed., Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998. See besides Irving N. Brant,
    James Madison: Begetter of the Constitution, 1787–1800. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1950.
  18. ^



    Encyclopædia Britannica (2007).
    Founding Fathers: The Essential Guide to the Men Who Made America. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN978-0-470-11792-seven.

  19. ^

    Wills, xii.

  20. ^

    Furtwangler, p. 20.

  21. ^

    Bain, Robert (1977). “The Federalist”. In Emerson, Everett H. (ed.).
    American Literature, 1764-1789: The Revolutionary Years. Univ. of Wisconsin Press. p. 260. ISBN978-0-299-07270-iv.

  22. ^

    Adair, 40–41.

  23. ^

    Adair, 44–46.

  24. ^

    Lodge, Henry Cabot, ed. (1902).
    The Federalist, a Commentary on the Constitution of the United states. Putnam. pp. xxxviii–xliii. Retrieved

  25. ^

    Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison (Jacob E. Cooke, ed.,
    The Federalist
    (Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1961 and subsequently reprintings). ISBN 978-0-8195-6077-3.

  26. ^

    Adair, 46–48.

  27. ^

    Adair, 48.

  28. ^

    Collins, Jeff; Kaufer, David; Vlachos, Pantelis; Butler, Brian; Ishizaki, Suguru (February 2004). “Detecting Collaborations in Text: Comparing the Authors’ Rhetorical Linguistic communication Choices in The Federalist Papers”.
    Computers and the Humanities.
    (one): 15–36. CiteSeerX10.1.ane.459.8655. doi:ten.1023/B:CHUM.0000009291.06947.52. S2CID 207680270.

  29. ^

    Fung, Glenn (2003). “The Disputed Federalist Papers: SVM Feature Selection via Concave Minimization”
    Journal of the ACM. Archived
    from the original on 2005-04-17.

  30. ^

    Furtwangler, p. 21.

  31. ^

    Furtwangler, p. 22.

  32. ^

    Coenen, Dan. “Fifteen Curious Facts about The Federalist Papers”. Media Eatables. Archived from the original on 2013-01-fifteen. Retrieved

  33. ^

    Furtwangler, p. 23.

  34. ^

    This scheme of division is adapted from Charles K. Kesler’s introduction to
    The Federalist Papers
    (New York: Signet Archetype, 1999) pp. 15–17. A similar sectionalisation is indicated by Furtwangler, pp. 57–58.

  35. ^

    Wills, 274.

  36. ^

    Tulis, Jeffrey (1987).

    The Rhetorical Presidency
    . Princeton University Press. p. xxx. ISBN978-0-691-02295-6.

  37. ^

    Harvey Flaumenhaft, “Hamilton’s Administrative Republic and the American Presidency,” in
    The Presidency in the Constitutional Order, ed. Joseph G. Bessette and Jeffrey K. Tulis (Baton Rouge and London: Louisiana Land University Press, 1981), 65–114.

  38. ^

    Lupu, Ira C.; “The Most-Cited Federalist Papers”.
    Constitutional Commentary
    (1998) pp. 403+; using Supreme Court citations, the v near cited were Federalist No. 42 (Madison) (33 decisions), Federalist No. 78 (Hamilton) (xxx decisions), Federalist No. 81 (Hamilton) (27 decisions), Federalist No. 51 (Madison) (26 decisions), Federalist No. 32 (Hamilton) (25 decisions).

  39. ^

    Run into, among others, a very early exploration of the judicial use of
    The Federalist
    in Charles W. Pierson, “The Federalist in the Supreme Court”, The Yale Police Journal, Vol. 33, No. 7. (May 1924), pp. 728–35.

  40. ^

    Chernow, Ron. “Alexander Hamilton”. Penguin Books, 2004. (p. 260)

  41. ^

    Arthur, John (1995).

    Words That Bind: Judicial Review and the Grounds of Modern Ramble Theory
    . Westview Press. pp. 41. ISBN978-0-8133-2349-seven.

  42. ^

    Madison to Thomas Ritchie, September xv, 1821. Quoted in Furtwangler, p. 36.

  43. ^

    Max Farrand, ed. (1911).
    The Records of the Federal Convention of 1787. Yale Academy Printing.
    the legitimate meaning of the Instrument must be derived from the text itself.

  44. ^













    1 of twelve disputed papers (Nos. 49–58 and 62–63) to which both Madison and Hamilton laid claim. See Adair, 93. Modernistic scholarly consensus leans towards Madison equally the author of all twelve, and he is so credited in this table.

  45. ^

    Miranda, Lin-Manuel; McCarter, Jeremy (2016).
    Hamilton: The Revolution. Thou Cardinal Publishing. pp. 142–143. ISBN978-1-4555-6753-9.

Full general and cited references


  • Adair, Douglass (1974). “The Disputed Federalist Papers”.
    Fame and the Founding Fathers. Indianapolis: Freedom Fund.

  • Mosteller, Frederick; Wallace, David L. (2012).
    Applied Bayesian and Classical Inference: The Case of
    The Federalist
    . Springer Scientific discipline & Business Media. ISBN978-1-4612-5256-6.

    Updated 2nd ed., originally published every bit
    Mosteller, Frederick; Wallace, David L. (June 1963). “Inference in an Authorship Trouble”.
    Periodical of the American Statistical Clan.
    (302): 275–309. JSTOR 2283270.

  • Furtwangler, Albert (1984).
    The Authority of Publius: A Reading of the Federalist Papers. Ithaca, New York: Cornell Univ. Press. ISBN978-0-8014-9339-3.

  • Wills, Gary.
    Explaining America: The Federalist. Garden City, NJ: 1981.

Further reading


  • Bradley, Harold W. (November 1945). “The Political Thinking of George Washington”.
    The Journal of Southern History. Southern Historical Association.
    (four): 469–486. doi:x.2307/2198308. JSTOR 2198308.

  • Dietze, Gottfried.
    The Federalist: A Classic on Federalism and Free Government. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1960.
  • Epstein, David F.
    The Political Theory of the Federalist. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1984.
  • Everdell, William R. (2000).

    The End of Kings: A History of Republics and Republicans
    . Chicago: Academy of Chicago Press.

  • Fischer, David Hackett (1965).

    The Revolution of American Conservatism: The Federalist Political party in the Era of Jeffersonian Commonwealth
    . Harper & Row.

  • Grey, Leslie, and Wynell Burroughs. “Teaching With Documents: Ratification of the Constitution”.
    Social Education, 51 (1987): 322–24.
  • Hamilton, Alexander; Madison, James; Jay, John (1901). Smith, Goldwin (ed.).
    The Federalist
    (PDF). New York: The Colonial Press.

  • Heriot, Gail. “Are Modern Bloggers Following in the Footsteps of Publius (and Other Musings on Blogging By Legal Scholars)”, 84
    Wash. U. L. Rev.
    1113 (2006).
  • Hofstadter, Richard (1969).

    The Idea of a Party System: The Rise of Legitimate Opposition in the U.s., 1780-1840
    . Academy of California Press. ISBN978-0-5200-1754-2.

  • Kesler, Charles R.
    Saving the Revolution: The Federalist Papers and the American Founding. New York: 1987.
  • Meyerson, Michael I. (2008).
    Liberty’southward Blueprint: How Madison and Hamilton Wrote the Federalist Papers, Divers the Constitution, and Made Democracy Safety for the Earth. New York: Basic Books.

  • Patrick, John J., and Clair Due west. Keller.
    Lessons on the Federalist Papers: Supplements to High School Courses in American History, Authorities and Civics. Bloomington, IN: Organization of American Historians in association with ERIC/ChESS, 1987. ED 280 764.
  • Schechter, Stephen L.
    Teaching about American Federal Democracy. Philadelphia: Center for the Study of Federalism at Temple University, 1984. ED 248 161.
  • Scott, Kyle.
    The Federalist Papers: A Reader’s Guide
    (New York: Bloomsbury Printing, 2013).
  • Sunstein, Cass R. “The Enlarged Democracy—And so and Now”,
    The New York Review of Books
    (March 26, 2009): Volume LVI, Number five, p. 45.
  • Webster, Mary Eastward.
    The Federalist Papers: In Modern Linguistic communication Indexed for Today’s Political Issues.
    Bellevue, WA: Merril Printing, 1999.
  • White, Morton.
    Philosophy, The Federalist, and the Constitution. New York: 1987.
  • Whitten, Roger D. (ed.).
    The Federalist Papers, or, How Government Is Supposed to Work, “Edited for Readability”. Oakesdale, WA: Lucky Zebra Press, 2007. ISBN 9780979956508. OCLC 243605493.

External links


  • The Federalist Papers
    at Standard Ebooks
  • “The federalist: a collection of essays”
  • “Total Text of The Federalist Papers”
  • The Federalist Papers, original 1788 press

  • The Federalist Papers
    at Project Gutenberg
  • National Archives on
    The Federalist
  • The Federalist Papers
    on the Bill of Rights
  • Teaching
    The Federalist Papers
  • Booknotes
    interview with Robert Scigliano on Scigliano’south Modern Library edition of
    The Federalist Papers, January 21, 2001.
  • Collection of
    The Federalist Papers
  • EDSITEment on
    The Federalist
    and Anti-Federalist debates on diversity and the extended republic

  • “Federalist, The”.
    New International Encyclopedia. 1905.

  • The Federalist Papers
    public domain audiobook at LibriVox

Which Statement is True of the Federalist Papers

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Federalist_Papers

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