This Holds an Organisms Hereditary Information

This Holds an Organisms Hereditary Information

This focus idea is explored through:

Contrasting pupil and scientific views

Student everyday experiences

Students commonly bring ideas of genetics from ‘folklore’: means in which families describe what and how certain characteristics are inherited. Their ideas can be further confused via popular reporting of genetics in the media.

Examples of these conceptions include:

  • that any observable variation between organisms of the same species is solely due to ecology factors
  • that not all living things contain genetic information
  • that a gene is non a real matter
  • that genes that carry the genetic fabric are just found in the blood or only found in the brain or only found in the reproductive system
  • that a person volition only conduct genes for characteristics they brandish (such as tongue rolling) and non for characteristics that they do not display (such as red pilus)
  • that caused changes (e.g. musculus development) tin exist passed onto offspring
  • that genetic inheritance involves an averaging of the genes from both parents (east.g. dark skin and white skin leads to brown skin) so each of a child’s characteristics is somewhere in between those of the parents.

Research: Commuter, Squires, Rushworth & Wood-Robinson (1994), Lewis, Leach & Forest-Robinson (2000)

Widespread confusion exists among students between the concept of inherited changes in populations that accept place over large periods of time (generations) and that of non inherited changes in individual organisms that take place over the period of the organism‘south lifetime.

Research: Lewis, Leach & Wood-Robinson (2000)

Scientific view

Genetic material, including genes and DNA, controls the development, maintenance and reproduction of organisms.

Genetic information is passed from generation to generation through inherited units of chemical information (in near cases, genes). Organisms produce other similar organisms through sexual reproduction, which allows the line of genetic material to be maintained and generations to exist linked. Through reproduction, organisms in a species maintain a ‘bank’ of genetic information which links individual members and successive generations.

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Variations in characteristics, such equally skin or hair colour, result from the population containing a range of genetic information for the characteristic. Characteristics that are non seen may be carried in genetic information (recessive) past individuals and can exist passed on. This means that offspring may brandish characteristics different from their parents. The characteristic that is observed may be controlled by a number of genes. There are a large number of possible combinations of genes from both parents. The characteristics of the offspring need not be an intermediate of the two parents.

Organisms possess genetic textile that contains information for the development of characteristics. This fabric passes from one generation to the next through reproduction.

All plants and animals are made up of cells where the genetic material can be found in the form of genes and chromosomes (usually in the nucleus).

Research: Lewis, Leach & Forest-Robinson (1999)

Changes that accept place in an organism over its lifetime (for instance, concealment of human skin due to exposure to sunlight) normally accept no upshot on the organism‘south genetic makeup and considering of this will not exist passed on to the organism’s offspring. Changes to an organism that are a result of or upshot in genetic mutation alter the genetic makeup of an organism and can be passed on to the next generation.

Inquiry: W​ood-Robinson (1994)

Mutations are changes in an organism‘s genetic information that potentially affect the current functioning of that genetic information.

Critical teaching ideas

  • Genetic material provides the information that allows living things to role.
  • Genetic data tin can be passed on from generation to generation. The passing on of this genetic information will be different in asexual and sexual reproduction and cloning. Variations within this information are more than likely in sexual reproduction.
  • Changes in genetic data (for instance, from mutation) can give rise to variation in characteristics and can be passed on through the generations.
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Explore the relationships between ideas about genetic information ideas in the Concept Evolution Maps – (Variation in Inherited Characteristics, Cell Functions, DNA and Inherited Characteristics, Natural Pick, Cells and Organs).

Students demand to realise that genetic cloth is establish in all living things and it carries information that directs the organism’s performance.

By studying reproduction students should develop an understanding that genetic information is passed from one generation to some other via organised chemic structures.

Students need to study examples of changes in genetic information that tin can ascend due to mutation. They should likewise study the impact of acquired changes on organisms and develop an agreement that these changes are not inherited considering they are not created by genetic changes.

For organisms to survive it is of import that the information needed for survival is passed on through the generations. If a population has sufficient variation within its genetic data, it is more probable to respond successfully to changes in the environment. Mutations tin can help past increasing the variation.

Instruction activities

Collect show/data for analysis

Students could exist given a group of organisms and asked to track the variations that accept occurred in that species. For example, for tiger snakes in Commonwealth of australia, one species has developed into 6 individual species:

  • Notechis scutatus
    (Common Tiger Serpent)
  • Notechis ater ater
    (Krefft’south Tiger Snake)
  • Notechis ater niger
    ( Peninsula Tiger Serpent)
  • Notechis ater occidentalis
    (Western Tiger Snake)
  • Notechis ater serventyi
    (Chappell Island Tiger Serpent)
  • Notechis ater humphreysi
    (Tasmanian and Male monarch Island Tiger Snakes).

Analyze and consolidate ideas for/by communication to others

Photographic image of a young male kangaroo.The students could then annotate on how this variation has enhanced the chances of survival in unlike environments and contributed to changes in a pool of genetic information.

Students could create their own ‘David Attenborough’ type documentary. They could choice an organism to investigate; local examples might be frogs, dogs, kangaroos, fungi or birds. They could also choose to create a documentary about plants including those that take been genetically modified for food. For ideas on how to carry out this type of activity the students could watch videos such equally David Attenborough documentaries.

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Promote reflection on and description of existing ideas

Another action might exist for the students to design loftier tech genetic identity cards; for this students may need to research the possible ethical and human rights considerations of collecting this personal information. They would besides need to consider whether certain drugs would be able to modify genetic data and how this information would exist recorded on the identity cards.

Students might as well produce identity kits which would include family information, photographs and family background. This could pb to discussion on who would have access to these and why they would need that access.

Collect evidence/information for assay

Students should use a variety of visual images to collect and describe information about the changes that tin occur within and betwixt organisms. They would need to research using books, journals and the internet, and so analyse their research to produce their findings.

Promote reflection on and clarification of existing ideas

Students might too talk over the causes and sources of mutations equally well as other sources of variation (such as recombination). They will also need to talk over and analyse the upstanding aspects of genetics and how these impact on humans.

Open discussion by a shared experience

Ethical issues and dilemmas associated with genetics tin elicit student need to know and provide excellent routes into student date.

A useful resource to explore the role of the sickle jail cell factor in natural selection is:

  • A Mutation Story

This Holds an Organisms Hereditary Information