Tenement Apartments at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century Were

Tenement Apartments at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century Were

Chicago Photographed from Ray Knabenshue’s Dirigible Air Transport, 1914

Tenement housing in Chicago
was established in the late 19th and into the early on 20th centuries.[one]
A majority of tenement complexes in Chicago were constructed in the interest of using land space and boosting the economy. These tenements were congenital quite tall, oftentimes exceeding 3 stories, to arrange as many depression-income tenants every bit possible.[2]
This was possible as Chicago had not set a height limit to residential buildings, allowing landlords to create towering, cramped buildings with many rooms to generate as much revenue as possible.[2]
By the starting time of the 20th century, tenement housing in Chicago was generally divided based on ethnicity, including sections such as Polish, African American, Italian, and Greek ethnic neighborhoods.[iii]

As Chicago became continually more urbanized, tenement houses rapidly grew in frequency and population density. This exacerbated both the deterioration of living conditions and the spread of diseases throughout Chicago. Past the mid 20th century, many groups including government officials looked to enact tenement reforms, by either improving living weather condition or transforming the complexes into more livable areas such as courtyard apartments.[one]
These reforms were brought out to better cleanliness and the overall standard of living.

Today, the urbanization and city planning of Chicago notwithstanding includes echoes of the previously established tenement houses, as the city includes divisions along racial, indigenous, and income-based lines.[4]
In this sense, Chicago continues to struggle with discrepancies in wealth and historical racial migration in regard to housing.

Tenement Housing in Chicago

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Early Chicago Tenement Firm

Size and Functionality

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Tenement houses in Chicago by the early on 1900s mainly comprised either of complexes or unmarried houses. Within these houses or complexes, single rooms would be rented out to individuals or families.[v]
These rooms were very overcrowded with people, allotting but almost 2 square yards per-person on average in some houses.[2]
In many cases the houses were not uninhabitable, withal, overcrowding complicated living conditions. In 1917, 1 report illustrated that on average over half-dozen people occupied a single room of tenement houses.[6]
This by and large led to complications with available space and even compromised air quality. Rooms were often unable to satisfy the various needs of tenants, as they had little space to spare. As a result, inhabitants of tenement houses often washed clothes, cleaned themselves, and generally spent time outside.

Health

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Living conditions

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Chicago tenements inhabited in the late 19th and early on 20th centuries were limited to bare necessities and were ofttimes overcrowded. However, ofttimes bare necessities were not nowadays in Chicago tenements, furthering the poor quality of life and germ-free conditions. Past the beginning of the 20th century, housing reformers noted that “‘bathroom and toilet’ rooms in the homes of large numbers of impoverished Chicagoans were either nonexistent or in dangerously lacking status.”[3]
As a upshot, sicknesses were widespread among these areas, and many were unable to perform basic tasks in their homes. The weather condition of these tenements ultimately led to the cosmos of many housing and sanitary reforms such as in the 1890s and 1900, every bit public health concerns grew increasingly alarming.[iii]

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Illness

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Tenement Building "E", Langley Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

Tenement Edifice “E”, Langley Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

As a result of the poor sanitation, size, and overall living conditions of the Chicago tenements, disease was able to spread rapidly. Diseases such as tuberculosis and scarlet fever were especially prevalent amongst Chicago tenements during the early 20th century.[2]
The spread was further exacerbated past overcrowding, poor sanitation, and the intimacy of tenement inhabitants.[two]
Although other areas of Chicago were also impacted by outbreaks of Tuberculosis in 1901 and throughout the 20th century, Chicago tenements were disproportionately affected.[six]

Those that contracted diseases during the early 20th century in Chicago tenements peculiarly faced difficulties, as due to their full general poverty they were unable to either cure or sustainably treat their diseases.[two]
Despite attempts by politicians to reform the health conditions, quality of inspection, and general quality of tenement areas, sanitary reform began to crumble as early as 1890.[3]
Settlement workers and politicians justified this in stating that the poor conditions were solely linked to low wages and irregular employment.[iii]
This proved to be detrimental for those living in tenements, as they received little country or federal support to ameliorate their living weather. Those living in tenements continued to remain in run down areas, unable to escape from the disease spreading effectually them.

Demographics

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African-Americans

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During the 2nd half of the 19th century and early into the 20th century a small number of wealthy and educated African Americans were present in Chicago. These communities were peppered between white suburbs and upper-class neighborhoods throughout the city. Although segregation was nowadays, the African American population was not nevertheless centered in the poor racial communities and tenement housing located in Chicago’s s side. Notwithstanding, this inverse during the 1910s, with the starting time of the start World State of war.[7]
Due to the influx of working class African American immigrants into the city, ascension from 2 to five percent of the cities total population during the 1920s, white residents began to abet for stricter policies of segregation. The African American population began to be zoned out of the wealthy white neighborhoods and began to purchase property the s side which became known as “black belt”. This expanse became the racial center for African Americans in the urban center and would afterwards develop into the lower-income housed, majority African American surface area of the city. As a consequence of these policies and purchasing patterns, Chicago become ane of the most racialized cities in the North.

During the 1910s and 1920s housing weather for African Americans were dismal. Many were crowded far beyond the legal limit and were built hap hazardously, however black tenants were paying far more for rent than their white counterparts in the other slums of the city. There were likewise not plenty areas for the population of African American migrates to observe housing, which contributed to the over crowded and unsanitary weather condition in the “black chugalug” housing. Jobs were likewise scarce for the residents of the “black belt” slums and many were non able to find work due to the institutionalized segregation laws of Chicago.[eight]
Due to these difficult atmospheric condition, conflict between the African American population and other ethnic and immigrant groups was common and culminated during this era with the Race Anarchism of 1919.

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The riot, which primarily pinned the black and smooth communities against each other, was brutal with both sides contributing to various acts of savagery. Each group fought, using guerilla warfare tactics and a series of bombings, to “agree the line” and protect the neighborhoods where each group lived. Every bit a consequence of these riots African American stereotypes were formed in the minds of many of Chicago’s indigenous minorities ad led to the believe that the goal of African Americans was to take over all the neighborhoods within the slums of Chicago.[9]
For the next few decades the memory of the 1919 Riot would propel Jim Crow laws in the city and crushed African American aspirations for better housing in affluent communities.

Italian-Americans

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Italian Americans have been office of Chicago communities since the incorporation of the city. Although the population of Italians in the city began equally a rather pocket-size minority, with the influx of immigration during the 1890s to 1920s, many Italian communities began to appear throughout the city. One of the most famous was known as “Picayune Sicily”, located on the north side of Chicago.[ten]
Past 1910, there were around 25,000 Italian and Sicilian immigrants living in city, virtually of which were from poorer southern Italy. Many immigrated to the city using the concatenation immigration system, where families or communities would send one or ii people to the Us, where they would find work and housing, typically through an Italian broker, before the rest of the family unit followed.[11]
This contributed to the overcrowded and harsh living conditions for Chicago’s Italian residents.

The housing in “Fiddling Sicily” and other Italian communities was in a frightful land. It was located in an expanse between the north and south side of the metropolis, which was known for being a identify of abject poverty. The residents lived in former, overcrowded three or four-story buildings, which would often sink into the ground over fourth dimension. Virtually were forced to pay high prices for low quality housing.[12]
Although, the expanse which they resided was surrounded by factories, almost Italian immigrants did non want to work in industrial plants, instead choosing to piece of work in rail or construction, who were paid less than their industrial counter parts. This led to even more overcrowding within the housing complex due to families moving in together to afford rent.[eleven]
Even though the residents did not work in the factories, the housing for many Italians were surrounded by them i side and with the river located on the other. This created an near constant layer of smoke and air pollution which led to an influx of lung related diseases for the residents.

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As a result of poverty and disharmonize between populations from different parts of Italy, offense became a major trouble in “Petty Sicily”. From 1910 to 1920 there was the rise of a grouping known every bit the Black Hand, a group which was known for exhorting coin from the wealthier Italian immigrants. After 1920 and the rise of prohibition, bootlegging become common in the neighborhood.[12]
The bootlegging industry led to mob violence in the area, mostly between the Aiello and Capone families. This led to the destruction of thousands of dollars of belongings destruction and dozens of deaths amidst the Italian populations.[13]

References

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    a




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    Bluestone, Daniel (Dec 1, 2017). “Framing Landscape While Building Density:: Chicago Courtyard Apartments, 1891–1929”.
    Journal of the Social club of Architectural Historians.
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    (4): 506–531. doi:ten.1525/jsah.2017.76.4.506. ISSN 0037-9808.


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    Hunter, Robert. Chicago: City Homes Clan, (1901): 88. Tenement Weather in Chicago
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    Garb, Margaret. Wellness, Morality, and Housing: The “Tenement Problem” in Chicago. Vol. 93 2003a.https://search-lib-byu-edu.erl.lib.byu.edu/byu/record/edsbyu.edsovi.edsovi.00000469.200309000.00019.

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    Conzen, Kathleen Neils (1979). “Immigrants, Immigrant Neighborhoods, and Ethnic Identity: Historical Issues”.
    The Periodical of American History.
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    (three): 603–615. doi:ten.2307/1890298. ISSN 0021-8723. JSTOR 1890298.



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    Addams, Jane and De Wood. “The Housing Problem in Chicago.”
    The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Scientific discipline
    20, (1902): 99–107. JSTOR 1009965
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    Robertson, John Dill (1917). “Chicago’s Tuberculosis Trouble”.
    American Journal of Public Health.
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    (iv): 277–287. doi:10.2105/AJPH.8.4.277. ISSN 0271-4353. PMC1362077. PMID 18009860.



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    Logan, John R.; Zhang, Weiwei; Turner, Richard; Shertzer, Allison (June 9, 2015). “Creating the Black Ghetto”.
    The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science.
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    (1): 18–35. doi:x.1177/0002716215572993. ISSN 0002-7162. PMC4654963. PMID 26600571.



  8. ^


    Phillips, Deborah (July 2013). “Racial Democracy and the Black Metropolis – Housing Policy in Post-State of war Chicago”.
    Ethnic and Racial Studies.
    36
    (7): 1253–1254. doi:10.1080/01419870.2013.783224. ISSN 0141-9870. S2CID 144093521.



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    Coit, Jonathan South. (2012). ““Our Changed Attitude”: Armed Defence force and the New Negro in the 1919 Chicago Race Riot”.
    The Journal of the Golden Age and Progressive Era.
    eleven
    (2): 225–256. doi:10.1017/S1537781412000035. ISSN 1537-7814. JSTOR 23249074.



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    Vecoli, Rudolph J. (1983). “The Formation of Chicago’s “Piddling Italies”“.
    Periodical of American Ethnic History.
    2
    (two): 5–20. ISSN 0278-5927. JSTOR 27500267.


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    Spinney, Robert G. (Robert Guy) (2000).
    City of big shoulders : a history of Chicago. DeKalb, Sick.: Northern Illinois University Printing. ISBN0-87580-254-0. OCLC 41176721.


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    Lombardo, Robert M. (2007). “Chicago’s Little Sicily”.
    Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society.
    100
    (i): 41–56. ISSN 1522-1067. JSTOR 40204665.



  13. ^


    Smith, Chris G. (July ii, 2019).
    Syndicate women : gender and networks in Chicago organized crime. Oakland, California. ISBN978-0-520-97200-1. OCLC 1079409904.




Tenement Apartments at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century Were

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tenement_housing_in_Chicago