Which Statement About the Cell Membrane is True

Which Statement About the Cell Membrane is True


The curation of this content is at the discretion of the author, and not necessarily reflective of the views of Encyclopaedia Britannica or its editorial staff. For the most accurate and up-to-engagement information, consult individual encyclopedia entries about the topics.

The cell is the most basic unit of life on Earth, and the development of the jail cell membrane (or plasma membrane) may be one of the most of import parts of the story of the evolution of life. Both prokaryotes (single-celled organisms that lack a distinct nucleus and other organelles) and eukaryotes (single-celled or multicellular organisms whose cells take a distinct nucleus and diverse organelles) take cell membranes that assist the jail cell remain separate, in a sense, from the outside earth. The cell membrane is the bulwark past which a cell’s insides are kept in and the environment is kept out. It also performs several other functions to maintain the cell’s homeostasis—that is, the cell’south state of equilibrium or stability as conditions modify inside the cell or in the outside environment.





  • It is made up of a double layer of phospholipids that separates the cell from the outside world.

    The jail cell membrane’s primary mission is to serve as a bulwark between the cell (which might likewise exist a unmarried-celled organism) and the earth; so the cell needs to have a structure which allows it to collaborate with both. A cell’s membrane is primarily made up of a double layer of phospholipids (fatlike, phosphorus-containing substances). Each layer is composed of phospholipid molecules that incorporate a hydrophilic (water-loving) head and a hydrophobic (water-repellent) tail. The heads in the outermost layer face and interact with the watery external environs, while the heads of those in the interior layer point in and interact with the cell’southward watery cytoplasm. The region between the ii layers is fluid repellent, which has the effect of separating the inside of the cell from the outside world. The cell membrane is semipermeable, which allows selected molecules to pass into or out of the cell.




  • Information technology contains proteins that provide a number of critical functions.

    Since proper cell functioning depends on the movement of nutrients and useful materials into the cell and the removal of waste material products from the prison cell, the cell membrane also contains proteins and other molecules that perform a wide diversity of these duties. Some proteins are attached to these mats of phospholipids to help move nutrients (such every bit oxygen and water) and wastes (such as carbon dioxide); some help the cell connect with and adhere to the right kinds of materials (as well as other cells); and some proteins keep the cell from linking up with toxic materials likewise as the wrong kinds of cells, foreign or otherwise. Specialized proteins chosen enzymes help break down larger nutrients or aid combine different nutrients with 1 another into more than useable forms. Depending upon their design and office, protein molecules may exist attached to the surface of ane of the cell membrane’due south layers or they may be fully embedded inside the layer residing alongside the phospholipids. Some proteins tasked with funneling nutrients into and out of the infinite betwixt the cell membrane’s inner and outer layer cantankerous merely one of the phospholipid layers. Others, which are designed to send nutrients into the cell itself or funnel wastes away from the cell, are large plenty to bridge both. At that place are besides proteins that help the cell maintain its shape.




  • Information technology contains carbohydrates that help to identify the cell and link the prison cell to others.

    Carbohydrates, compounds of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (such as sugars, starches, and celluloses), are found along the surface of the outermost layer of the jail cell membrane. Carbohydrates form glycolipids after linking with lipids, and glycoproteins after linking with proteins. Depending upon their design, glycolipid and glycoprotein molecules may act equally chemic markers or receptors that aid identify the prison cell or assist in linking the jail cell to other cells. Glycoproteins also bind with other proteins to brand enzymes and other substances that, depending on the molecule’southward purpose, could exist involved in blood clotting, capturing foreign bacteria, protecting against diseases, and other activities.




  • Singer and Nicolson’south fluid mosaic model is ofttimes used to describe the cell membrane’s structure.

    It can be difficult to envision how the cell membrane functions. Afterwards all, the prison cell, cell membrane, and all the activities the cell engages in occur at levels besides small for the naked eye to see. In 1972, two American scientists, Due south.J. Singer and Thousand.L. Nicolson, developed the fluid mosaic model to describe the structure and functions of the prison cell membrane. The model notes that the membrane itself is fluid, in the sense that it is constantly changing. Individual phospholipids move about laterally (in the aforementioned layer); however, one or more lipids may flip to the other layer on occasion. Lipids are drawn to one another through weak hydrophobic attractions, so while they do stick to one another, the bonds are routinely broken. The membrane’due south proteins also move about inside this sea of lipids—as do cholesterols (which occur only in creature cells). Cholesterols increment the membrane’s rigidity and firmness at moderate and higher temperatures by making the membrane less soluble. At lower temperatures, nevertheless, cholesterols carve up phospholipids from i another so that the membrane does not become too rigid.




  • The fluid mosaic model also describes how nutrients are transported into and out of the cell.

    Nutrient and waste product transport may be passive (that is, it does not require energy) or agile (that is, energy is required) to move molecules beyond the cell membrane. Passive transport can occur through diffusion, where molecules flow from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration (down a concentration gradient). If molecules lengthened through a semipermeable membrane, the process is called osmosis. However, in cells, a type of assisted passive transport called facilitated diffusion works because of send proteins, which create membrane-spanning portals for specific kinds of molecules and ions or attach to a specific molecule on one side of the membrane, bear it to the other side, and release information technology. In dissimilarity, active transport is fueled by a coenzyme called adenosine triphosphate (ATP)—which delivers chemical energy captured from the breakdown of food to other parts of the prison cell—to motility molecules upward a concentration slope. Among other things, agile send allows the prison cell to expel waste ions, such equally sodium (Na+), from the jail cell even though the concentration of sodium ions exterior the cell may be higher than the concentration inside.




Which Statement About the Cell Membrane is True

Source: https://www.britannica.com/list/fast-facts-about-the-cell-membrane

Popular:   After Winning Power the National Assembly