What Type of Bureaucracy Did the Caliphate Create

What Type of Bureaucracy Did the Caliphate Create

Learning Objective

  • Discuss the political stability during the Abbasid Era and the Abbasids’ rise to power

Central Points

  • The Abbasids overthrew the Umayyad dynasty in 750 CE, supporting the mawali, or non-Arab Muslims, by moving the capital to Baghdad in 762 CE.
  • The Western farsi bureaucracy slowly replaced the quondam Arab aristocracy as the Abbasids established the new positions of vizier and emir to delegate their central say-so.
  • The Abbasids maintained an unbroken line of caliphs for over 3 centuries, consolidating Islamic rule and cultivating dandy intellectual and cultural developments in the Middle East in the Gilded Age of Islam.
  • The Fatimid dynasty broke from the Abbasids in 909 and created split line of caliphs in Morocco, People’s democratic republic of algeria, Tunisia, Great socialist people’s libyan arab jamahiriya, Egypt, and Palestine until 1171 CE.
  • Abbasid control eventually disintegrated, and the edges of the empire declared local autonomy.
  • Though lacking in political power, the dynasty continued to claim authority in religious matters until after the Ottoman conquest of Arab republic of egypt in 1517.

Terms

mawali

Non-Arab Muslims.

Fatimid dynasty

A Shi’a Islamic caliphate that spanned a large area of Northward Africa, from the Ruddy Sea in the east to the Atlantic Sea in the w; they claimed lineage from Muhammad’southward girl.

emir

A title of high office used in a variety of places in the Muslim world.

vizier

A high-ranking political counselor or minister in the Muslim world.

Rise of the Abbasid Empire (c. 750 CE)

The Umayyad dynasty was overthrown past another family unit of Meccan origin, the Abbasids, in 750 CE. The Abbasids distinguished themselves from the Umayyads past attacking their moral character and administration. In particular, they appealed to non-Arab Muslims, known as mawali, who remained exterior the kinship-based society of the Arabs and were perceived every bit a lower class within the Umayyad empire. The Abbasid dynasty descended from Muhammad’south youngest uncle, Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib (566–653 CE), from whom the dynasty takes its name. Muhammad ibn ‘Ali, a swell-grandson of Abbas, began to campaign for the return of power to the family of Muhammad, the Hashimites, in Persia during the reign of Umar II, an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 717–720 CE.

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Coin of the Abbasids, Baghdad, Republic of iraq, 765 CE.

Power in Baghdad

The Abbasids moved the empire’s capital from Damascus, in modern-mean solar day Syria, to Baghdad, in modern-24-hour interval Iraq, in 762 CE. The Abbasids had depended heavily on the back up of Persians in their overthrow of the Umayyads, and the geographic ability shift appeased the Persian mawali support base. Abu al-‘Abbas’due south successor, Al-Mansur, welcomed non-Arab Muslims to his court. While this helped integrate Arab and Persian cultures, it alienated the Arabs who had supported the Abbasids in their battles against the Umayyads. The Abbasids established the new position of vizier to consul fundamental authorisation, and delegated even greater authority to local emirs. Every bit the viziers exerted greater influence, many Abbasid caliphs were relegated to a more formalism office as Persian hierarchy slowly replaced the old Arab aristocracy.

The Abbasids, who ruled from Baghdad, had an unbroken line of caliphs for over iii centuries, consolidating Islamic rule and cultivating groovy intellectual and cultural developments in the Middle Due east in the Golden Historic period of Islam. By 940 CE, however, the power of the caliphate under the Abbasids began waning equally non-Arabs gained influence and the various subordinate sultans and emirs became increasingly independent.

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Map of the Abbasid Caliphate at its greatest extent, c. 850 CE. The Abbasid dynasty ruled as caliphs from their majuscule in Baghdad, in modern Republic of iraq, afterwards taking over potency of the Muslim empire from the Umayyads in 750 CE.

Decline of the Abbasid Empire

The Abbasid leadership worked to overcome the political challenges of a large empire with limited advice in the last half of the 8th century (750–800 CE). While the Byzantine Empire was fighting Abbasid rule in Syrian arab republic and Anatolia, the caliphate’s military operations were focused on internal unrest. Local governors had begun to exert greater autonomy, using their increasing power to make their positions hereditary. Simultaneously, former supporters of the Abbasids had broken abroad to create a separate kingdom around Khorosan in northern Persia.

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Several factions left the empire to practise independent authority. In 793 CE, the Shi’a (also called Shi’ite) dynasty of Idrisids gained authored over Fez in Kingdom of morocco. The Berber Kharijites set up an contained state in Due north Africa in 801 CE. A family unit of governors under the Abbasids became increasingly contained until they founded the Aghlabid Emirate in the 830s. Within 50 years, the Idrisids in the Maghreb, the Aghlabids of Ifriqiya, and the Tulunids and Ikshidids of Misr became independent in Africa.

By the 860s governors in Egypt prepare their own Tulunid Emirate, so named for its founder Ahmad ibn Tulun, starting a dynastic dominion separate from the caliph. In the eastern territories, local governors decreased their ties to the primal Abbasid rule. The Saffarids of Herat and the Samanids of Bukhara seceded in the 870s to cultivate a more Western farsi civilization and rule. The Tulinid dynasty managed Palestine, the Hijaz, and parts of Arab republic of egypt. Past 900 CE, the Abbasids controlled only central Mesopotamia, and the Byzantine Empire began to reconquer western Anatolia.

The Fatimid Caliphate (909–1171 CE)

Several factions challenged the Abbasids’ claims to the caliphate. Well-nigh Shi’a Muslims had supported the Abbasid war confronting the Umayyads because the Abbasids claimed legitimacy with their familial connection to Muhammad, an important issue for Shi’a. However, once in power, the Abbasids embraced Sunni Islam and disavowed any support for Shi’a beliefs.

The Shiʻa Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi Billah of the Fatimid dynasty, who claimed descent from Muhammad’s daughter, alleged himself Caliph in 909 CE and created a split up line of caliphs in N Africa. The Fatimid caliphs initially controlled Morocco, People’s democratic republic of algeria, Tunisia, and Libya, and they expanded for the next 150 years, taking Arab republic of egypt and Palestine. The Abbasid dynasty finally challenged Fatimid dominion, limiting them to Egypt. By the 920s, a Shi’a sect that only recognized the get-go five Imams and could trace its roots to Muhammad’s daughter Fatima, took control of Idrisi so Aghlabid domains. This group advanced to Egypt in 969 CE, establishing their capital almost Fustat in Cairo, which they built as a bastion of Shi’a learning and politics. By thousand CE, they had become the principal political and ideological claiming to Abbasid Sunni Islam. At this bespeak, the Abbasid dynasty had fragmented into several governorships that were more often than not democratic, although they official recognized caliphal authority from Baghdad. The caliph himself was under “protection” of the Buyid Emirs, who possessed all of Republic of iraq and western Iran, and were quietly Shi’a in their sympathies.

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The Fatimid Caliphate at its top, c. 969 CE. The Fatimid dynasty broke from the Abbasids in 909 CE and created separate lines of caliphs in Kingdom of morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and Palestine until 1171 CE.

Outside Republic of iraq, all the autonomous provinces slowly became states with hereditary rulers, armies, and revenues. They operated nether only nominal caliph authority, with emirs ruling their own provinces from their own capitals. Mahmud of Ghazni took the championship of “sultan,” instead of “emir,” signifying the Ghaznavid Empire’s independence from caliphal dominance, despite Mahmud’s ostentatious displays of Sunni orthodoxy and ritual submission to the caliph. In the 11th century, the loss of respect for the caliphs connected, as some Islamic rulers no longer mentioned the caliph’southward proper noun in the Fri khutba, or struck it off their coinage. The political power of the Abbasids largely ended with the ascension of the Buyids and the Seljuq Turks in 1258 CE. Though lacking in political ability, the dynasty connected to merits say-so in religious matters until afterwards the Ottoman conquest of Egypt in 1517.

What Type of Bureaucracy Did the Caliphate Create

Source: https://courses.lumenlearning.com/suny-hccc-worldcivilization/chapter/the-abbasid-empire/