Which of the Following is True About Charcoal

Which of the Following is True About Charcoal

Lightweight blackness carbon residual

Mangrove charcoal burning video

Wood pile before roofing it with turf or soil, and firing it (circa 1890)

Charcoal
is a lightweight black carbon balance produced by strongly heating woods (or other animal and constitute materials) in minimal oxygen to remove all water and volatile constituents. In the traditional version of this pyrolysis process, called charcoal called-for, often by forming a charcoal kiln, the heat is supplied by burning part of the starting material itself, with a limited supply of oxygen. The material can as well exist heated in a closed retort. Modern “charcoal” briquettes used for outdoor cooking may contain many other additives, eastward.g. coal.

This procedure happens naturally when combustion is incomplete, and is sometimes used in radiocarbon dating. It also happens inadvertently while called-for forest, as in a fireplace or forest stove. The visible flame in these is due to combustion of the volatile gases exuded every bit the wood turns into charcoal. The soot and smoke commonly given off by wood fires event from incomplete combustion of those volatiles. Charcoal burns at a higher temperature than wood, with inappreciably a visible flame, and releases almost nothing except heat and carbon dioxide (I kilogram of charcoal contains 680 to 820 grams of carbon, which when combined with oxygen from the temper form ii.5 to three kg of carbon dioxide).

History

[edit]

The product of wood charcoal in locations where in that location is an affluence of woods dates back to aboriginal times. Information technology more often than not begins with piling billets of woods on their ends to form a conical pile. Openings are left at the bottom to admit air, with a primal shaft serving equally a flue. The whole pile is covered with turf or moistened clay. The firing is begun at the bottom of the flue, and gradually spreads outward and upward. The success of the operation depends upon the charge per unit of the combustion. Under boilerplate weather wood yields about sixty% charcoal past volume, or 25% by weight;[one]
small-scale-calibration production methods often yield only about 50% by volume, while large-scale methods enabled higher yields of well-nigh xc% by the 17th century. The operation is and then delicate that it was generally left to colliers (professional person charcoal burners). They often lived alone in small huts to tend their wood piles. For example, in the Harz Mountains of Germany, charcoal burners lived in conical huts called
Köten
which are extant today.[
when?
]

The massive production of charcoal (at its top employing hundreds of thousands, mainly in Alpine and neighbouring forests) was a major cause of deforestation, especially in Central Europe.[ii]
[
when?
]

In England, many woods were managed as coppices, which were cutting and regrown cyclically, so that a steady supply of charcoal was available. Complaints (as early as the Stuart period) near shortages may relate to the results of temporary over-exploitation or the impossibility of increasing production to match growing demand. The increasing scarcity of easily harvested wood was a major factor behind the switch to fossil fuel equivalents, mainly coal and brownish coal for industrial use.

The modern process of carbonizing wood, either in pocket-size pieces or as sawdust in bandage iron retorts, is extensively practiced where wood is scarce, and also for the recovery of valuable byproducts (wood spirit, pyroligneous acrid, wood tar), which the process permits. The question of the temperature of the carbonization is important; according to J. Percy, wood becomes brown at 220 °C (430 °F), a deep brown-blackness later on some time at 280 °C (540 °F), and an easily powdered mass at 310 °C (590 °F). Charcoal fabricated at 300 °C (570 °F) is chocolate-brown, soft and friable, and readily inflames at 380 °C (720 °F); made at higher temperatures it is hard and breakable, and does not fire until heated to about 700 °C (1,300 °F).[1]
[3]

In Republic of finland and Scandinavia, the charcoal was considered the past-product of wood tar product. The best tar came from pine, thus pinewoods were cutting down for tar pyrolysis. The residual charcoal was widely used as substitute for metallurgical coke in blast furnaces for smelting. Tar production led to rapid local deforestation. The stop of tar production at the end of the 19th century resulted in rapid re-forestation of affected areas.

The American form of the charcoal briquette was outset invented and patented by Ellsworth B. A. Zwoyer of Pennsylvania in 1897[4]
and was produced by the Zwoyer Fuel Company. The process was further popularized by Henry Ford, who used woods and sawdust byproducts from automobile fabrication every bit a feedstock. Ford Charcoal went on to become the Kingsford Company.

Production methods

[edit]

Charcoal under a microscope.

Charcoal has been made past various methods. The traditional method in U.k. used a clench.[5]
This is essentially a pile of wooden logs (e.yard. seasoned oak) leaning in a circle against a chimney. The chimney consists of iv wooden stakes held upward by some rope. The logs are completely covered with soil and straw allowing no air to enter. Information technology must be lit by introducing some called-for fuel into the chimney; the logs fire very slowly and transform into charcoal in a period of v days’ burning. If the soil covering gets torn or cracked by the burn, boosted soil is placed on the cracks. In one case the burn is complete, the chimney is plugged to prevent air from entering. The true fine art of this product method is in managing the sufficient generation of oestrus, past combusting office of the wood material, and its transfer to wood parts in the process of being carbonised. A stiff disadvantage of this product method is the huge amount of emissions that are harmful to human wellness and the environment (emissions of unburnt methane).[6]
As a result of the partial combustion of wood material, the efficiency of the traditional method is low.

Mod methods apply retorting engineering science, in which process oestrus is recovered from, and solely provided by, the combustion of gas released during carbonisation.[7]
Yields of retorting are considerably higher than those of kilning, and may reach 35%-40%.

The properties of the charcoal produced depend on the material charred. The charring temperature is too important. Charcoal contains varying amounts of hydrogen and oxygen likewise as ash and other impurities that, together with the structure, determine the properties. The estimate limerick of charcoal for gunpowders is sometimes empirically described equally C7H4O.[
citation needed
]

To obtain a coal with high purity, source material should exist costless of non-volatile compounds.

Wood charcoal is obtained as the balance by subversive distillation of wood such that the products are:

  • Liquid products – pyroligneous acid and wood tar[8]
  • Gaseous products – wood gas
  • Residual product – wood charcoal

Types

[edit]

Ogatan, charcoal briquettes fabricated from sawdust

  • Mutual charcoal
    is made from peat, coal, wood, coconut shell, or petroleum.
  • Sugar charcoal
    is obtained from the carbonization of saccharide and is specially pure. It is purified by boiling with acids to remove whatsoever mineral thing and is then burned for a long time in a current of chlorine to remove the last traces of hydrogen.[9]
    It was used by Henri Moissan in his early attempt to create synthetic diamonds.[
    commendation needed
    ]
  • Activated charcoal
    is similar to common charcoal but is manufactured peculiarly for medical use. To produce activated charcoal, common charcoal is heated to nigh 900 °C (1,700 °F) in the presence of a gas (normally steam), causing the charcoal to develop many internal spaces, or “pores”, which help the activated charcoal to trap chemicals. Impurities on the surface of the charcoal are likewise removed during this process, greatly increasing its adsorption chapters.
  • Lump charcoal
    is a traditional charcoal made directly from hardwood material. It commonly produces far less ash than briquettes.
  • Japanese charcoal
    has had pyroligneous acid removed during the charcoal making; it therefore produces about no smell or smoke when burned. The traditional charcoal of Japan is classified into 3 types:

    • White charcoal (Binchōtan) is very hard and produces a metallic sound when struck.
    • Black charcoal [ja]
    • Ogatan is a more recent blazon made from hardened sawdust.
  • Pillow shaped briquettes
    are made by compressing charcoal, typically made from sawdust and other forest by-products, with a binder and other additives. The binder is unremarkably starch. Briquettes may also include brown coal (heat source), mineral carbon (estrus source), borax, sodium nitrate (ignition assistance), limestone (ash-whitening agent), raw sawdust (ignition aid), and other additives.
  • Sawdust briquette charcoal
    is made past compressing sawdust without binders or additives. It is the preferred charcoal in Taiwan, Korea, Greece, and the Middle Eastward. It has a round hole through the center, with a hexagonal intersection. Information technology is used primarily for barbecue as it produces no odour, no fume, little ash, loftier heat, and long burning hours (exceeding 4 hours).
  • Extruded charcoal
    is made by extruding either raw ground woods or carbonized wood into logs without the use of a binder. The oestrus and pressure of the extruding process agree the charcoal together. If the extrusion is fabricated from raw wood material, the extruded logs are subsequently carbonized.
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Uses

[edit]

Grill charcoal fabricated from kokosnoot shell

Charcoal has been used since earliest times for a large range of purposes including fine art and medicine, but by far its most important utilize has been as a metallurgical fuel. Charcoal is the traditional fuel of a blacksmith’due south forge and other applications where an intense estrus is required. Charcoal was also used historically as a source of black pigment by grinding it upwardly. In this form charcoal was important to early on chemists and was a elective of formulas for mixtures such equally black powder. Due to its high surface area charcoal can be used as a filter, and as a catalyst or as an adsorbent.

Metallurgical fuel

[edit]

Charcoal burns at temperatures exceeding 1,100 degrees Celsius (2,010 degrees Fahrenheit).[x]
By comparison the melting bespeak of iron is approximately 1,200 to 1,550 °C (2,190 to 2,820 °F). Due to its porosity, it is sensitive to the menstruation of air and the estrus generated tin be moderated past controlling the air flow to the burn. For this reason charcoal is still widely used by blacksmiths. Charcoal has been used for the production of iron since Roman times and steel in modern times where it also provided the necessary carbon. Charcoal briquettes tin burn up to approximately one,260 °C (2,300 °F) with a forced air blower forge.[eleven]

In the 16th century, England had to pass laws to prevent the state from becoming completely denuded of trees due to product of iron.[
commendation needed
]

In the 19th century charcoal was largely replaced past coke in steel production due to cost, even though coke unremarkably adds sulphur and sometimes other deleterious contaminants to the hog iron. Wooded metallurgical regions devoid of coal like Sweden and Urals or Siberia transitioned from charcoal in the early 20th century.

Industrial fuel

[edit]

Historically, charcoal was used in great quantities for smelting iron in bloomeries and later blast furnaces and finery forges. This apply was replaced by coal in the 19th Century as role of the Industrial Revolution.

Cooking and heating fuel

[edit]

Prior to the Industrial Revolution, charcoal was occasionally used as a cooking fuel. It is counted as a smokeless fuel; that is, the carbon is sufficiently pure that burning it causes essentially less air pollution than burning the original uncarbonized organic material would. In the 20th century, clean-air legislation mandated smokeless fuels (mostly coke or charcoal) in many areas of Europe. In the 21st century, charcoal has been advocated as a manner to improve the health of people burning raw biomass for cooking and/or heating. Modernistic “charcoal” briquettes, widely used for outdoor cooking, are made with charcoal but may also include coal every bit an energy source as well as accelerants, binders and filler.

To contain the charcoal and use it for cooking purposes, a charcoal-broil grill may be used. A small Japanese charcoal grill is known as a
shichirin. A brazier is a container used to burn charcoal or other solid fuel.

To outset the charcoal burning is harder than starting a wood fire and charcoal lighter fluid may be employed. A chimney starter or electric charcoal starter are tools to aid with starting to light charcoal.

Approximately 75% of fuel burned in Republic of haiti is charcoal.[12]

Reducing agent

[edit]

Certain types of charcoal, such as wood charcoal, are used for reducing heated metal oxides to their corresponding metals:

  • ZnO + C → Zn + CO
  • Iron2O3
    + 3C → 2Fe + 3CO

Charcoal tin also be used to reduce super heated steam to hydrogen (forth with the germination of carbon monoxide):

  • C + HiiO (1000 °C) → H2
    + CO (Water gas)


Syngas production, automotive fuel

[edit]

Like many other sources of carbon, charcoal tin can be used for the production of various syngas compositions; i.e., various CO + H2
+ COtwo
+ Due northtwo
mixtures. The syngas is typically used as fuel, including automotive propulsion, or every bit a chemical feedstock.

In times of scarce petroleum, automobiles and even buses have been converted to burn wood gas (a gas mixture consisting primarily of diluting atmospheric nitrogen, merely besides containing combustible gasses, mostly carbon monoxide) released past burning charcoal or forest in a wood gas generator. In 1931 Tang Zhongming developed an motorcar powered by charcoal, and these cars were pop in China until the 1950s and in occupied France during World War Ii (called
gazogènes).

Pyrotechnics

[edit]

Charcoal is used in the production of blackness powder, which is used extensively in the production of fireworks. Information technology is usually ground into a fine pulverization, with airfloat form beingness the finest particle size available commercially. When used in black pulverisation compositions, information technology is often ball-milled with other ingredients and then that they are intimately mixed together. Certain charcoals perform better when used to make black powder, these include bandbox, willow, paulownia and grapevine among others.[
commendation needed
]

Charcoal produces fine nighttime orange/golden sparks. Commonly, powder with a mesh size from 10 to 325 is used to obtain showers of golden sparks in pyrotechnic compositions.[13]

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Cosmetic employ of bamboo charcoal

[edit]

Charcoal is also incorporated in multiple cosmetic products.[fourteen]
Information technology tin can be produced from regular bamboo cut into small pieces and boiled in water to remove soluble compounds.[14]
Raw bamboo charcoal is obtained later on drying and carbonization in an oven at elevated temperature.[14]
The role of charcoal in cosmetics is based on its highly effective arresting properties at a microscopic scale.[fourteen]

Carbon source

[edit]

Charcoal may be used every bit a source of carbon in chemic reactions. I instance of this is the production of carbon disulphide through the reaction of sulfur vapors with hot charcoal. In that instance the wood should exist charred at high temperature to reduce the residual amounts of hydrogen and oxygen that lead to side reactions.

Purification and filtration

[edit]

Charcoal may be
activated
to increment its effectiveness as a filter. Activated charcoal readily adsorbs a wide range of organic compounds dissolved or suspended in gases and liquids. In certain industrial processes, such as the purification of sucrose from cane sugar, impurities crusade an undesirable color, which tin be removed with activated charcoal. It is too used to absorb odors and toxins in gases, such as air. Charcoal filters are also used in some types of gas masks. The medical use of activated charcoal is mainly the absorption of poisons.[fifteen]
Activated charcoal is available without a prescription, so information technology is used for a diverseness of health-related applications. For example, it is often used to reduce discomfort and embarrassment due to excessive gas (flatulence) in the digestive tract.[xvi]

Brute charcoal or bone black is the carbonaceous residue obtained by the dry distillation of bones. It contains only virtually 10% carbon, the remaining existence calcium and magnesium phosphates (fourscore%) and other inorganic textile originally present in the basic. It is generally manufactured from the residues obtained in the gum and gelatin industries. Its decolorizing power was practical in 1812 by Derosne to the clarification of the syrups obtained in carbohydrate refining; just its use in this direction has now greatly macerated, owing to the introduction of more active and easily managed reagents. It is nevertheless used to some extent in laboratory practice. The decolorizing power is non permanent, condign lost after using for some time; it may be revived, however, past washing and reheating.[1]
Forest charcoal removes some coloring fabric from solutions, merely brute charcoal is more often than not more than effective.[
citation needed
]

Art

[edit]

4 sticks of vine charcoal and four sticks of compressed charcoal

Two charcoal pencils in paper sheaths that are unwrapped as the pencil is used, and 2 charcoal pencils in wooden sheaths

Charcoal is used in art for drawing, making rough sketches in painting and is one of the possible media for making a parsemage. It must commonly be preserved by the application of a fixative. Artists by and large utilize charcoal in iii forms:

  • Vine charcoal
    is created by called-for grape vines.
  • Willow charcoal
    is created by burning sticks.
  • Powdered charcoal
    is oft used to “tone” or cover large sections of a cartoon surface. Drawing over the toned areas darkens information technology further, but the artist tin also lighten (or completely erase) within the toned area to create lighter tones.
  • Compressed charcoal
    charcoal powder mixed with glue binder compressed into round or square sticks. The corporeality of binder determines the hardness of the stick.[17]
    Compressed charcoal is used in charcoal pencils.

Horticulture

[edit]

Ane additional utilize of charcoal was rediscovered recently for horticulture. Although American gardeners have used charcoal for a short time, research on Terra preta soils in Amazonia has discovered the widespread use of charcoal produced past pyrolysis in the absence of oxygen, i. e. biochar, past pre-Columbian natives to ameliorate unproductive soil into soil that is rich in carbon. The technique may find modern application, both to improve soils and as a means of carbon sequestration.[18]

Animal husbandry

[edit]

Charcoal is mixed with feed, added to litter, or used in the treatment of the manure.[nineteen]
Poultry benefits from using charcoal in this manner.[20]
[21]

A concern that activated charcoal might be used unscrupulously to allow livestock to tolerate low quality feed contaminated with aflatoxins resulted in the Clan of American Feed Command Officials banning information technology in 2012 from use in commercial livestock feeds.[22]

Medicine

[edit]

Charcoal was consumed in the past equally dietary supplement for gastric problems in the form of charcoal biscuits. At present it can be consumed in tablet, capsule or pulverization course, for digestive effects.[23]
Enquiry regarding its effectiveness is controversial.[24]

Charcoal has been used in combination with saccharin in research to measure mucociliary transport time.[25]

Charcoal has also been incorporated in toothpaste formulas; however, in that location is no evidence to determine its safe and effectiveness.[26]

Red colobus monkeys in Africa have been observed eating charcoal for the purposes of self-medication. Their leafy diets contain high levels of cyanide, which may lead to indigestion. So they learned to consume charcoal, which absorbs the cyanide and relieves indigestion. This knowledge virtually supplementing their diet is transmitted from mother to infant.[27]

Environmental sustainability

[edit]

Production and utilisation of charcoal, like whatever use of woody biomass as fuel, typically results in emissions and can contribute to deforestation.

The use of charcoal as a smelting fuel has been experiencing a resurgence in S America resulting in severe environmental, social and medical issues.[28]
[29]
Charcoal product at a sub-industrial level is i of the causes of deforestation. Charcoal production is at present normally illegal and nearly always unregulated every bit in Brazil where charcoal production is a big illegal industry for making squealer atomic number 26.[thirty]
[31]
[32]

Massive woods destruction has been documented in areas such as Virunga National Park in the Autonomous Democracy of Congo, where it is considered a primary threat to the survival of the mount gorillas.[33]
Similar threats are found in Zambia.[34]
In Malawi, illegal charcoal merchandise employs 92,800 workers and is the master source of heat and cooking fuel for xc percent of the nation’s population.[35]
Some experts, such every bit Duncan MacQueen, Principal Researcher–Forest Team, International Institute for Surroundings and Development (IIED), argue that while illegal charcoal production causes deforestation, a regulated charcoal industry that required replanting and sustainable use of the forests “would requite their people clean efficient energy – and their free energy industries a strong competitive advantage”.[35]

Contempo assessments of charcoal imported to Europe have shown that many charcoal products are produced from tropical wood, often of undeclared origin. In an analysis of barbecue charcoal marketed in Germany, the World Wildlife Fund finds that nigh products contain tropical forest. As a notable exception, reference is made to barbecue charcoal imports from Namibia, where charcoal is typically produced from surplus biomass resulting from bush encroachment.[36]
[37]

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In pop culture

[edit]

The final section of the motion picture
Le Quattro Volte
(2010) gives a good and long, if poetic, documentation of the traditional method of making charcoal.[38]
The Arthur Ransome children’s series
Swallows and Amazons
(especially the second volume,
Swallowdale) features carefully fatigued vignettes of the lives and the techniques of charcoal burners at the offset of the 20th century, in the Lake District of the UK. Antonín Dvořák’s opera
King and Charcoal Burner
is based on a Czech fable about a king who gets lost in a forest and is rescued by a charcoal burner.

Come across also

[edit]

  • Binchōtan
  • Biochar
  • Biomass briquettes
  • Charcoal in nutrient
  • Char
  • Char cloth
  • Coke (fuel), made from coal rather than wood
  • Pyrolysis
  • Shichirin
  • Slash-and-char
  • Terra preta
  • Thomas Britton (1644 – 1714) small coal merchant of London, noted for his singing voice.
  • Tortillon
  • Kingsford
  • Wood gas
  • Ember

References

[edit]

  1. ^


    a




    b




    c





    Ane or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain:Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). “Charcoal”.
    Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 5 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 856.



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  9. ^



    One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain:Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). “Carbon”.
    Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 5 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 306.



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    Updated April 26, 2018 Past Gabriella Munoz (26 Apr 2018). “How Hot Is a Bonfire?”. Sciencing. Retrieved
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    Cheng, Zhilong; Yang, Jian; Zhou, Lang; Liu, Yan; Wang, Qiuwang (1 Jan 2016). “Characteristics of charcoal combustion and its effects on iron-ore sintering performance”.
    Applied Energy.
    161: 364–374. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.09.095. ISSN 0306-2619.



  12. ^


    Lea, John Dale Zach (25 January 2017). “Charcoal Is Not the Cause of Republic of haiti’s Deforestation | Haiti Liberte”. Retrieved
    16 July
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  13. ^


    Kenneth Fifty. Kosanke; Bonnie J. Kosanke (1999), “Pyrotechnic Spark Generation”,
    Journal of Pyrotechnics: 49–62, ISBN978-1-889526-12-6, archived from the original on 16 December 2017


  14. ^


    a




    b




    c




    d




    Ahmad, N; Isa, Due south.Southward.M.; Ramli, Chiliad.K.; Hambali, N.A.M.A.; Kasjoo, S.R.; Isa, M.M.; Nor, N.I.M.; Khalid, Northward. (2016). “Adsorption properties and potential applications of bamboo charcoal: A Review”
    (PDF).
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    on 24 July 2018. Retrieved
    3 February
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    – via edp sciences.



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    Dawson, Andrew (1997). “Activated charcoal: a spoonful of sugar”.
    Australian Prescriber.
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  16. ^


    “Treating flatulence”.
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    27 May
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  17. ^


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  18. ^


    Johannes Lehmann, ed. (2009).
    Biochar for Environmental Management: Scientific discipline and Applied science. Stephen Joseph. Earthscan. ISBN978-1-84407-658-1
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  19. ^


    Gerlach, Achim; Schmidt, Hans-Peter (2014), “The use of biochar in cattle farming”,
    The Biochar Journal, Arbaz, Switzerland, ISSN 2297-1114



  20. ^


    Yarrow, David (March 2015). “Biochar: Helping Everything from Soil Fertility to Odor Reduction”. Acres The statesA. Archived from the original on 9 June 2019. Retrieved
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  21. ^


    Schupska Site=CAES News, Stephanie (10 March 2011). “Charcoal supplemented diet reduces ammonia in chickens’ litter”.


  22. ^


    Damerow, Gail (2015).
    The Chicken Health Handbook, second Edition: A Complete Guide to Maximizing Flock Health and Dealing with Affliction. p. 391. ISBN978-1612120133.



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    Stearn, Margaret (2007).
    Warts and all: straight talking advice on life’due south embarrassing problems. London: Murdoch Books. p. 333. ISBN978-1-921259-84-5
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  25. ^


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  28. ^


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  29. ^


    Yard. Kato1, D. Thou. DeMarini, A. B. Carvalho, M. A. V. Rego, A. 5. Andrade1, A. S. V. Bonfim and D. Loomis (2004). “Globe at piece of work: Charcoal producing industries in northeastern Brazil”.
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    {{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)


  30. ^


    “U.S. car manufacturers linked to Amazon destruction, slave labor”. News.mongabay.com. 14 May 2012. Retrieved
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  31. ^


    “Driving Destruction in the Amazon: How steel production is throwing the forest into the furnace”.
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  32. ^

    The documentary film
    The Charcoal People
    (2000) [1] shows in particular the deforestation in Brazil, the poverty of the laborers and their families, and the method of constructing and using a clamp for burning the wood.

  33. ^


    “Virunga National Park”. Gorilla.cd. Archived from the original on iii October 2008. Retrieved
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  34. ^


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  35. ^


    a




    b




    “Is charcoal the key to sustainable energy consumption in Malawi?”.
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  36. ^


    Zahnen, Johannes. “Market Assay Charcoal-broil Charcoal 2018 – The Muddied Business of Barbecue Charcoal”
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  37. ^


    “From Bush-league to Charcoal: the Greenest Charcoal Comes from Namibia”.
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    27 May
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  38. ^


    “Le quattro volte (2010)”.
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    16 September
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External links

[edit]


  • Media related to Charcoal at Wikimedia Commons

  • “Charcoal”.
    Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 5 (11th ed.). 1911. p. 856.

  • Simple technologies for charcoal making
  • “On Charcoal” by Peter J F Harris
  • Charcoal Making at Hopewell Furnace National Celebrated Site in Pennsylvania – U.S. National Park Service (YouTube video)
  • Illustrated how-to
  • Experiments with varied techniques, illustrated
  • “Charcoal – An Ecology Disaster”, a 2019 Deutsche Welle television programme documenting the charcoal production manufacture in Africa and Europe and related industries, environmental consequences of the use and product of charcoal, and efforts toward sustainability; narrated in English



Which of the Following is True About Charcoal

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charcoal