The Stomach is Inferior to the Belly Button

The Stomach is Inferior to the Belly Button



The umbilicus is a protruding, flat or hollowed scar left after the umbilical string detaches.

Precursor Umbilical cord
Ductus venosus
Artery Umbilical artery
Vein Umbilical vein
Latin Umbilicus
MeSH D014472
TA98 A01.ii.04.005
TA2 261
FMA 61584
Anatomical terminology

[edit on Wikidata]

(clinically known equally the
navel, ordinarily known as the
belly button) is a protruding, flat, or hollowed expanse on the abdomen at the attachment site of the umbilical cord.[1]
All placental mammals have a bellybutton.



The umbilicus is used to visually separate the abdomen into quadrants.[2]

The umbilicus is a prominent scar on the abdomen, with its position being relatively consequent among humans. The skin around the waist at the level of the umbilicus is supplied past the tenth thoracic spinal nerve (T10 dermatome). The bellybutton itself typically lies at a vertical level corresponding to the junction between the L3 and L4 vertebrae,[3]
with a normal variation amid people betwixt the L3 and L5 vertebrae.[four]

Parts of the adult navel include the “umbilical cord remnant” or “umbilical tip”, which is the often protruding scar left by the detachment of the umbilical cord. This is located in the center of the navel, sometimes described as the
omphalos. Effectually the cord remnant, is the “umbilical neckband”, formed by the dense fibrous umbilical ring. Surrounding the umbilical collar is the periumbilical skin. Straight behind the navel is a thick fibrous cord formed from the umbilical cord, called the urachus, which originates from the bladder.[v]



The bellybutton is unique to each individual due to its being a scar, and diverse general forms have been classified by medical practitioners.[6]
further explanation needed

  • Outie: A belly button consisting of the umbilical tip protruding by the periumbilical skin is an outie. Essentially any omphalus which is not concave.

    • Swirly/Screw: A rare form in which the umbilical cord scar forms a swirl shape.
    • Split: The protruding umbilical string scar extends outwards, but is cleft in 2 by a fissure which extends part or all the fashion through the umbilical string scar. This form is like in advent to a coffee bean.
    • Protrusion: The umbilical cord remnant is completely divulged, exposing the full umbilical scar.
    • Circlet: Although the entirety of the umbilical cord remnant sits out with the umbilical neckband, the centre of the knot is inset by a deep fissure. Unlike a carve up outie, in this class the crevice is independent centrally and does not extend past the umbilical string remnant in any direction, much akin to a ‘donut’ shape.[8]
  • Innie: A omphalos in which the umbilical tip does non protrude past the periumbilical pare. Whatever navel which is concave.

    • Round: Round navels are completely circular with no hooding.
    • Vertical: Some navels nowadays in the grade of a more elongate hollow parallel with the linea alba.
    • Oval: This class consists of three variants; superior hooding, junior hooding, no hooding.
    • T-shaped: Every bit the name states, the scar is in the shape of a T, and may accept superior hooding to various extent.
    • Horizontal: The scar is least visible as the natural lines of the tendinous intersection fold over the scar.
  • Distorted: Any belly button which does not fit well into any of the other categories.

Clinical significance


The navel of an adult male a few days after a laparoscopic procedure to remove the appendix.



Outies are sometimes mistaken for umbilical hernias; notwithstanding, they are a completely unlike shape with no health concern, unlike an umbilical hernia. The navel (specifically abdominal wall) would be considered an umbilical hernia if the protrusion were 5 centimeters or more. The bore of an umbilical hernia is usually one/ii-inch or more.[9]
Navels that are concave are nicknamed “innies”.[10]
While the shape of the human omphalos may be affected by longterm changes to nutrition and exercise, unexpected alter in shape may be the upshot of ascites.[eleven]

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In add-on to change in shape being a possible side effect from ascites and umbilical hernias, the navel can be involved in umbilical sinus or fistula, which in rare cases can lead to menstrual or fecal discharge from the navel. Menstrual discharge from the umbilicus is a rare disorder associated with umbilical endometriosis.[12]

Other disorders


  • Omphalitis, an inflammatory condition of the umbilicus in the newborn, usually caused by a bacterial infection.[xiv]
  • Omphalophobia is the fright of belly buttons. People suffering from Omphalophobia are terrified of abdomen buttons—their own or, in some cases, those of others. They do not like touching their belly buttons (or even other people touching it). Sometimes but seeing a belly button is plenty to make them feel disgusted or terrified.[
    citation needed



To minimize scarring, the bellybutton is a recommended site of incision for various surgeries, including transgastric appendicectomy,[xvi]
gall bladder surgery,[17]
and the umbilicoplasty[xviii]
process itself.

Fashion, society and culture


The public exposure of the male person and female midriff and bare navel was considered taboo at times in the past in Western cultures, beingness considered immodest or indecent. Female belly button exposure was banned in some jurisdictions, simply community perceptions have inverse to this at present existence acceptable.[19]
The crop top is a shirt that often exposes the belly button and has get more common among immature men and women.[20]
Exposure of the male navel has rarely been stigmatised and has get particularly popular in contempo years, due to the stiff resurgence of the male ingather top and male navel piercing.[21]
The umbilicus and midriff are often also displayed in bikinis, or when depression-rise pants are worn.

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While the Westward was relatively resistant to omphalos-baring wear until the 1980s, it has long been a fashion with Indian women,[22]
often displayed with Saris or Lehengas.

The Japanese have long had a special regard for the belly button. During the early Jōmon menstruum in northern Japan, 3 pocket-size balls indicating the breasts and navel were pasted onto flat clay objects to stand for the female person body. The navel was exaggerated in size, informed by the conventionalities that the omphalos symbolized the center where life began.[23]

In Arabic-Levantine culture, belly dancing is a pop art form that consists of trip the light fantastic toe movements focused on the torso and umbilicus.[24]

Buddhism and Hinduism refer to the chakra of the omphalus every bit the manipura. In qigong, the navel is seen as the primary free energy centre, or dantian. In Hinduism, the Kundalini energy is sometimes described as being located at the belly button.

See also


  • Alvinolagnia
  • Omphalos fetishism
  • Omphalus piercing
  • Navel
  • Umbilical microbiome
  • Omphaloskepsis



  1. ^

    “Definition of NAVEL”.
    world wide

  2. ^

    “Anatomy & Physiology”. Openstax college at Connexions. Retrieved
    16 Nov

  3. ^

    Ellis, Harold (2006).
    Clinical Anatomy: Applied Anatomy for Students and Junior Doctors. New York: Wiley. ISBNane-4051-3804-one.

    page needed

  4. ^

    O’Rahilly, Ronan; Müller, Fabiola; Carpenter, Stanley; Swenson, Rand (2004). “Abdominal walls”.
    Basic Human Anatomy: A Regional Report of Homo Structure. Dartmouth Medical School. Archived from the original on 24 July 2012. Retrieved
    10 November

  5. ^

    Khati, Nadia J.; Enquist, Erik G.; Javitt, Marcia C. (1998). “Imaging of the Umbilicus and Periumbilical Region”.
    (2): 413–four. doi:ten.1148/radiographics.eighteen.2.9536487. PMID 9536487.

  6. ^

    Shiffman, Melvin (2017). “vii.3”.
    Developed Umbilical Reconstruction: Principles and Techniques. Switzerland: Springer. p. 53. ISBN978-three-319-43885-6.

  7. ^

    Mohamed, Fahmy (2018). “Umbilicus Types and Shapes”.
    Umbilicus and Umbilical Cord. Egypt: Springer. pp. 105–eight. doi:10.1007/978-three-319-62383-2_22. ISBN978-iii-319-62382-five.

  8. ^

    Stephen Cullen, Thomas (1916). “ii”.
    Bellybutton. Commonwealth of australia: West.B.Saunders Company. p. one.1–1.7. ISBN978-0-7334-2609-iv.

  9. ^

    Meier, Donald Due east.; OlaOlorun, David A.; Omodele, Rachael A.; Nkor, Sunday Grand.; Tarpley, John L. (2001). “Incidence of Umbilical Hernia in African Children: Redefinition of ‘Normal’ and Reevaluation of Indications for Repair”.
    World Journal of Surgery.
    (5): 645–eight. doi:ten.1007/s002680020072. PMID 11369993. S2CID 22628578.

  10. ^

    Ceccanti, Silvia, et al. “Umbilical cord sparing technique for repair of built hernia into the string and small omphalocele.” Journal of Pediatric Surgery 52.1 (2017): 192-196.

  11. ^

    Herrine, Steven K. “Ascites”. The Merck Manuals.

  12. ^

    Bagade, Pallavi V; Guirguis, Mamdouh One thousand (2009). “Menstruating from the umbilicus equally a rare case of primary umbilical endometriosis: a example report”.
    Journal of Medical Case Reports.
    3: 9326. doi:10.1186/1752-1947-3-9326. PMC2803849. PMID 20062755.

  13. ^

    D’Alessandro, Donna M. (2 June 2008). “What’s Wrong With His Omphalus?”.
    Pediatric Education.

    self-published source?

    unreliable medical source?

  14. ^

    Cunningham, F.
    Williams Obstetrics: The Newborn
    (24th ed.). McGraw-Loma.

  15. ^

    Fleisher, Gary R. Textbook of Pediatric Emergency Medicine. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2006, p. 928.

  16. ^

    Kaehler, Yard.; Schoenberg, Yard. B.; Kienle, P.; Postal service, Due south.; Magdeburg, R. (2013). “Transgastric appendicectomy”.
    British Journal of Surgery.
    (7): 911–5. doi:10.1002/bjs.9115. PMID 23575528. S2CID 24285562.

    • Sarah Glynn (12 April 2013). “Scarless Surgery Through The Bellybutton Feasible Alternative For Appendicitis”.
      Medical News Today.

  17. ^

    “SRMC Surgeon Offers Gallbladder Removal through Abdomen Push button Incision with da Vinci System” (Printing release). Southeastern Health. nine December 2013. Archived from the original on 4 Jan 2015. Retrieved
    16 August

  18. ^

    Bruekers, Sven Due east.; van der Lei, Berend; Tan, Tik L.; Luijendijk, Roland W.; Stevens, Hieronymus P. J. D. (2009). “‘Scarless’ Umbilicoplasty”.
    Annals of Plastic Surgery.
    (ane): fifteen–20. doi:x.1097/SAP.0b013e3181877b60. PMID 19546666. S2CID 206034192.

  19. ^

    “New code may reveal navel”.
    Mohave Daily Miner. 24 March 1985. Retrieved
    20 Apr

  20. ^

    “Kid Cudi Mens Crop Top Trending”. Archived from the original on 18 June 2022. Retrieved
    thirty January

  21. ^

    “Crop Top Comeback”.
    BBC. 28 August 2018. Retrieved
    14 September

  22. ^

    Banerjee, Mukulika & Miller, Daniel (2003)
    The Sari. Oxford; New York: Berg ISBN 1-85973-732-iii[
    page needed

  23. ^

    Naumann, Nelly (2000). “Beginning Indications of Symbolic Expression”.
    Japanese Prehistory: The Cloth and Spiritual Culture of the Jōmon Catamenia. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. pp. 114–5. ISBN978-3-447-04329-viii.

  24. ^

    “Belly Dance History – A History of Belly Dancing « Abdomen Trip the light fantastic toe org”.
    . Retrieved
    24 December

Further reading


  • “Navel Biodiversity Project”. Archived from the original on 30 July 2016. Retrieved
    15 April

  • Craig, Stefan B.; Faller, Mary S.; Puckett, Charles Fifty. (2000). “In Search of the Ideal Female person Belly button”.
    Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.
    (ane): 389–92. doi:10.1097/00006534-200001000-00062. PMID 10627008.

  • Gabriele, Raimondo; Conte, Marco; Egidi, Federico; Borghese, Mario (2005). “Umbilical metastases: current viewpoint”.
    Globe Journal of Surgical Oncology.
    (1): 13. doi:ten.1186/1477-7819-3-13. PMC552325. PMID 15723695.

  • Moreau, Corrie S.; Hulcr, Jiri; Latimer, Andrew K.; Henley, Jessica B.; Rountree, Nina R.; Fierer, Noah; Lucky, Andrea; Lowman, Margaret D.; Dunn, Robert R. (2012). “A Jungle in There: Bacteria in Belly Buttons are Highly Diverse, but Predictable”.
    PLOS One.
    (eleven): e47712. Bibcode:2012PLoSO…747712H. doi:x.1371/journal.pone.0047712. PMC3492386. PMID 23144827.

  • Piskun, Gregory; Rajpal, Sanjeev (1999). “Transumbilical Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Utilizes No Incisions Outside the Belly button”.
    Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques.
    (4): 361–4. doi:10.1089/lap.1999.nine.361. PMID 10488834.

  • “New meaning to ‘navel-gazing’: Scientists report navel bacteria”.
    Body Odd. NBC News. xiv April 2011. Archived from the original on 26 July 2016. Retrieved
    16 August

External links


  • Media related to Navels at Wikimedia Eatables

The Stomach is Inferior to the Belly Button


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