What is the Arcade in Ottonian Architecture

What is the Arcade in Ottonian Architecture

Covered walk enclosed by a line of arches on one or both sides

An
arcade
is a succession of contiguous arches, with each arch supported by a colonnade of columns or piers. Exterior arcades are designed to provide a sheltered walkway for pedestrians. The walkway may be lined with retail stores.[i]
An arcade may feature arches on both sides of the walkway. Alternatively, a blind arcade superimposes arcading against a solid wall.[2]
Blind arcades are a feature of Romanesque architecture that influenced Gothic architecture. In the Gothic architectural tradition, the arcade can be located in the interior, in the lowest office of the wall of the nave, supporting the triforium and the clerestory in a cathedral,[3]
or on the exterior, in which they are usually part of the walkways that environment the courtyard and cloisters.

Many medieval arcades housed shops or stalls, either in the arcaded infinite itself, or set into the main wall behind. From this, “arcade” has become a general word for a group of shops in a single building, regardless of the architectural grade.

The word “arcade” comes from French
arcade
from Provençal
arcada
or Italian
arcata, based on Latin
arcus, ‘bow’ (run across arc and curvation).[4]

A related but ambiguous term is



arcature

, which is either a modest arcade or a blind arcade.[5]
[6]

History

[edit]

Arcades get back to at least the Ancient Greek architecture of the Hellenistic flow, and were much used by the Romans, for example at the base of the Colosseum. Church cloisters very oftentimes use arcading. Islamic compages very ofttimes uses arcades in and exterior mosques in item. In Renaissance compages elegant arcading was frequently used equally a prominent feature of facades, for example in the Ospedale degli Innocenti (commissioned 1419) or the courtyard of the Palazzo Bardi, both by Filippo Brunelleschi in Florence.

Shopping arcades

[edit]

Dome-topped arcade in a Tunesian souq

The Strand Arcade
in Sydney CBD, Commonwealth of australia, opened 1892

The French builder, Bertrand Lemoine, described the catamenia, 1786 to 1935, as
50’Ère des passages couverts
(the Arcade Era).[vii]
He was referring to the grand shopping “arcades” that flourished beyond Europe during that period. A shopping arcade refers to a multiple-vendor space, operating under a covered roof. Typically, the roof was constructed of glass to allow for natural lite and to reduce the need for candles or electrical lighting.[eight]
The 18th and 19th century arcades were designed to attract the genteel middle classes. In time, these arcades came to be the identify to shop and to be seen. Arcades offered shoppers the promise of an enclosed space away from the chaos that characterised the noisy, muddied streets; a warm, dry space away from the harsh elements, and a prophylactic haven where people could socialise and spend their leisure time. As thousands of glass covered arcades spread across Europe, they became grander and more ornately decorated. Past the mid-nineteenth century, they had become prominent centres of way and social life. Promenading in these arcades became a popular nineteenth-century pastime for the emerging middle classes.[nine]

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The inspiration for the grand shopping arcades may accept derived from the fashionable open loggias of Florence notwithstanding medieval vernacular examples known equally ‘butterwalks’ were traditional jettied colonnades in British and North European marketplaces; examples remain for example in Totnes and Dartmouth in Devon. During the 16th-century, a blueprint of market trading using mobile stalls under covered arcades was established in Florence, from where it spread throughout Italy. Examples of the earliest open up loggias include: Mercato Nuovo (1547) by Giovanni Battista del Tasso (and funded past the Medici family); Mercato Vecchio, Florence by Giorgio Vasari (1567) and Loggia del Grano (1619) by Giulio Parigi.[10]

Arcades shortly spread beyond Europe, North America and the antipodes. Examples of these chiliad shopping arcades include: Palais Imperial in Paris (opened in 1784); Passage de Feydeau in Paris (opened in 1791); London’s Piccadilly Arcade (1810) and Milan’due south Galleria Vittorio Emanuele (1878).[11]
Some examples of arcades in North America include New York’south Paddock Arcade (1850), Ohio’s Dayton Arcade (1904),[12]
and Rhode Island’s Westminster Arcade (1828). Other notable nineteenth century thousand arcades include the Galeries Royales Saint-Hubert in Brussels which was inaugurated in 1847 and Istanbul’s Çiçek Pasajı opened in 1870. Shopping arcades were the forerunner to the modernistic shopping mall, and the give-and-take “arcade” is at present often used for malls which do not use the architectural form at all.[
commendation needed
]

The Palais-Royal, which opened in 1784 and became ane of the most important marketplaces in Paris, is generally regarded as the earliest example of the grand shopping arcades.[13]
Originally, a royal palace, the complex consisted of gardens, shops and amusement venues situated under the original colonnades. The area boasted some 145 boutiques, cafés, salons, hair salons, bookshops, museums, and numerous refreshment kiosks as well as two theatres. The retail outlets specialised in luxury goods such as fine jewellery, furs, paintings and piece of furniture designed to entreatment to the wealthy elite. Retailers operating out of the Palais complex were amidst the starting time in Europe to carelessness the organisation of bartering, and prefer fixed-prices thereby sparing their clientele the hassle of bartering. Stores were fitted with long glass exterior windows which allowed the emerging middle-classes to window shop and indulge in fantasies, fifty-fifty when they may not take been able to afford the loftier retail prices. Thus, the Palais-Imperial became one of the first examples of a new style of shopping arcade, frequented by both the aristocracy and the middle classes. It adult a reputation as being a site of sophisticated conversation, revolving effectually the salons, cafés, and bookshops, but also became a identify frequented by off-duty soldiers and was a favourite haunt of prostitutes, many of whom rented apartments in the building.[xiv]

Ane of the earliest British examples of a shopping arcade, the Covered Marketplace, Oxford, England was officially opened on i November 1774 and is still active today. The Covered Market was started in response to a general wish to articulate “untidy, messy and unsavoury stalls” from the main streets of key Oxford. John Gwynn, the architect of Magdalen Bridge, drew upward the plans and designed the High Street front with its four entrances. In 1772, the newly formed Marketplace committee, one-half of whose members came from the boondocks and one-half from the university, accepted an gauge of nine hundred and sixteen pounds ten shillings, for the building of twenty butchers’ shops. Twenty more shortly followed, and after 1773 meat was allowed to be sold only inside the market. From this nucleus the market place grew, with stalls for garden produce, pig meat, dairy products and fish.[
citation needed
]

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Gostiny Dvor in St Petersburg, Russia is another early shopping arcade. Sprawling at the intersection of Nevsky Prospekt and Sadovaya Street for over 1 kilometer and embracing the area of 53,000 m2
(570,000 sq ft), the indoor circuitous of more 100 shops took xx-8 years to construct. Building commenced in 1757 to an elaborate design by Bartolomeo Rastrelli, but that subsequently was discarded in favour of a less expensive and more functional Neoclassical design submitted past Jean-Baptiste Vallin de la Mothe (1729–1800).[
citation needed
]

Throughout the post-obit century, Gostiny Dvor was augmented, resulting in ten indoor streets and as many as 178 shops by the 20th century. During the post-World War Ii reconstructions, its inner walls were demolished and a huge shopping mall came into being. This massive 18th-century construction got a face-elevator recently and entered the 21st century as one of the most fashionable shopping centres in Eastern Europe.[15]

An early French arcade is the Passage du Caire created in 1798 as a tribute to the French campaign in Arab republic of egypt and Syrian arab republic. It was appreciated by the public for its protection from the weather condition, dissonance and filth of the streets.[16]
A yr later American builder William Thayer created the Passage des Panoramas with a row of shops passing between two panorama paintings. Shopping arcades increasingly were built in the second Bourbon Restoration.[17]
Upper levels of arcades frequently independent apartments[18]
and sometimes brothels.[19]

Notable arcades

[edit]

Religious buildings

[edit]

  • Great Mosque of Córdoba, Spain
  • Mission San Fernando Rey de España – Compages of the California missions, United States
  • Mosque of Uqba, Kairouan, Tunisia
  • Existent Monasterio de Nuestra Senora de Rueda, Aragon Autonomous Community, Spain
  • Sanctuary of the Madonna di San Luca, Bologna, Italia


Shopping “arcades”

[edit]

  • Adelaide Arcade, Adelaide, Australia
  • Arcade Edifice, Asheville, North Carolina, United States
  • Barton Arcade, Manchester, England
  • Block Arcade, Melbourne, Australia
  • Brisbane Arcade, Brisbane, Australia
  • Burlington Arcade, London, England
  • Camayo Arcade, Winchester, Ashland, Kentucky, United States
  • Cathedral Arcade, Melbourne, Australia
  • Metropolis Market, Charleston, South Carolina, The states
  • Çiçek Pasajı, Istanbul, Turkey
  • Cleveland Arcade, Cleveland, Ohio, Usa
  • The Corridor, Bath, England
  • Covered Market, Oxford, England
  • Dayton Arcade, Dayton, Ohio, United states of america
  • Eaton Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • Monticello Arcade, Norfolk, Virginia
  • Galerías Pacífico, Buenos Aires, Argentina
  • Galeries Royales Saint-Hubert in Brussels, Belgium
  • Galleria Vittorio Emanuele Two, Milan, Italy
  • GPO Arcade, Dublin, Ireland
  • Grand Arcade, Leeds, Uk
  • Grand Arcade, Wigan, Britain
  • Corking Western Arcade, Birmingham, England
  • GUM, Moscow, Russia
  • Galleria Umberto I, Naples, Italy
  • Market Arcade, Buffalo, New York, United States[xx]
    [21]
  • Monticello Arcade, Norfolk, Virginia, United States
  • Nashville Arcade, Nashville, Tennessee, United states of america
  • Odessa Passage, Odessa, Ukraine
  • Erstwhile Bank Arcade, Wellington, New Zealand
  • Paddock Arcade, Watertown, New York, United States
  • Palais-Royal, Paris, French republic
  • The Passage des Panoramas, Paris, France
  • The Passage de l’Argue, Lyon, France
  • Piccadilly Arcade London, England
  • Queens Arcade, Cardiff, Wales, United kingdom
  • The Royal Arcade, London
  • Royal Arcade, Melbourne, Australia
  • Rue de Rivoli, Paris, France
  • Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States
  • Silver Arcade Silver Arcade, Leicester, United kingdom of great britain and northern ireland
  • The Strand Arcade and Queen Victoria Building, Sydney New Due south Wales, Commonwealth of australia
  • Corking Gostiny Dvor St. petersburg, Russia
  • The Passage Petrograd, Russia
  • Victoria Quarter, Leeds, England
  • Westminster Arcade, Providence, Rhode Island, United States
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Gallery

[edit]

See besides

[edit]

  • Aisle
  • Aqueduct
  • Bazaar
  • Cloister
  • Lanes and arcades of Melbourne, Australia
  • List of shopping arcades in Cardiff, Wales, United kingdom of great britain and northern ireland
  • List of shopping centres in the United kingdom of great britain and northern ireland
  • Loggia
  • Marketplace
  • Penny arcade
  • Retail
  • Roman aqueduct
  • Shophouse
  • Shopping arcade
  • Souq
  • Stoa
  • Tong lau

References

[edit]


  1. ^


    New Oxford American Dictionary

  2. ^

    James Bettley and Nikolaus Pevsner (2007),
    Essex. The buildings of England, Yale Academy Press, page 865

  3. ^

    William Chambers (1973),
    Chambers’due south encyclopaedia, Volume 1, International Learning Systems Corp, p. 534

  4. ^


    New Oxford American Lexicon

  5. ^


    “arcature”.
    Merriam-Webster Dictionary.


    “1. a small arcade (equally in a balcony). 2. a blind arcade, specially i that is decorative rather than structural.”

  6. ^


    Lockwood, Luke Vincent (1913).
    The Article of furniture Collectors’ Glossary. Walpole Gild.
    ARCATURE . — A small arcade formed by a serial of trivial arches. It may be blind or open.



  7. ^

    Lemoine, B.,
    Les Passages Couverts, Paris: Délégation à l’action artistique de la ville de Paris [AAVP], 1990. ISBN 9782905118219.

  8. ^

    Mitchell, I.,
    Tradition and Innovation in English Retailing, 1700 to 1850,
    Routledge, Oxon, p. 140

  9. ^

    Byrne-Paquet, L.,
    The Urge to Splurge: A Social History of Shopping,
    ECW Press, Toronto, Canada, pp. 92–95

  10. ^

    Pevsner, Northward.,
    A History of Edifice Types,
    Princeton University Press, 1979, p. 235; Goy, R.J.,
    Florence: A Walking Guide to Its Architecture,
    Yale Academy Press, 2015; Codini, East.K. (ed),
    Architettura a Pisa nel Primo Periodo Mediceo, Gangemi, 2003, p.213

  11. ^

    Sassatelli, R.,
    Consumer Civilization: History, Theory and Politics,
    Sage, 2007, p. 27; Although the author specifically names Piccadilly Arcade, it is possible that she intended Burlington Arcade in Piccadilly.

  12. ^


    “Part ane: 1880-1913”.
    arcade. 2019-02-22. Retrieved
    2020-04-26
    .



  13. ^

    Mitchell, I.,
    Tradition and Innovation in English Retailing, 1700 to 1850,
    Routledge, Oxon, p. 140

  14. ^

    Byrne-Paquet, L.,
    The Urge to Splurge: A Social History of Shopping,
    ECW Printing, Toronto, Canada, pp. ninety–93

  15. ^

    Bogdanov, I.A. ,
    Bolshoi Gostiny dvor v Peterburge. SPb, 2001

  16. ^

    p. 174 Desmons, Gilles
    Walking Paris
    New Holland Publishers, 2008

  17. ^

    p. 386 Ayers, Andrew
    The Architecture of Paris: An Architectural Guide
    Edition Axel Menges, 2004

  18. ^

    p. 32 Benjamin, Walter & Tiedemann, Rolf
    The Arcades Project
    Harvard University Press, 1999

  19. ^

    p. 88 Rabaté, Jean-Michel
    Given: 10 Art 20 Law-breaking : Modernity, Murder and Mass Civilisation
    Sussex Academic Press, 2007

  20. ^


    “Market Arcade”.
    Visit Buffalo Niagara
    . Retrieved
    2022-05-30
    .



  21. ^


    Sommer, Marking. “European-like Market Arcade is a ‘testify stopper’“.
    Buffalo News
    . Retrieved
    2022-05-30
    .




What is the Arcade in Ottonian Architecture

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arcade_%28architecture%29