What is the Correct Meaning of the Word Dictatorial

What is the Correct Meaning of the Word Dictatorial

Political leader who possesses absolute power

A
dictator
is a political leader who possesses accented power. A dictatorship is a state ruled by one dictator or by a small-scale clique.[1]
The word originated as the championship of a Roman dictator elected by the Roman Senate to rule the republic in times of emergency (come across Roman dictator and
justitium).[2]

Like the term
tyrant, and to a lesser degree
autocrat,
dictator
came to be used most exclusively as a not-titular term for oppressive dominion. In modern usage the term
dictator
is generally used to draw a leader who holds or abuses an extraordinary amount of personal power. Dictatorships are often characterised by some of the following: suspension of elections and ceremonious liberties; annunciation of a state of emergency; rule by decree; repression of political opponents; not abiding by the rule of constabulary procedures, and cult of personality. Dictatorships are often one-party or ascendant-party states.[3]
[4]

A wide variety of leaders coming to power in different kinds of regimes, such as ane-party states, dominant-party states, and noncombatant governments under a personal rule, have been described as dictators.

Etymology

[edit]

Julius Caesar outmaneuvered his opponents in ancient Rome to install himself as dictator for life.

Originally an emergency legal appointment in the Roman Commonwealth and the Etruscan culture, the term
Dictator
did not accept the negative meaning information technology has now.[5]
A Dictator was a magistrate given sole power for a limited duration. At the finish of the term, the Dictator’s power was returned to normal Consular rule, though non all dictators accepted a return to power sharing.[
citation needed
]

The term started to get its mod negative pregnant with Cornelius Sulla’southward ascension to the dictatorship following Sulla’south civil state of war, making himself the first Dictator in Rome in more than a century (during which the function was ostensibly abolished) also as
de facto
eliminating the time limit and need of senatorial acclamation. He avoided a major constitutional crunch by resigning the office later on about one twelvemonth, dying a few years later. Julius Caesar followed Sulla’s example in 49 BC and in Feb 44 BC was proclaimed
Dictator perpetuo, “Dictator in perpetuity”, officially doing abroad with any limitations on his power, which he kept until his bump-off the following month.

Following Caesar’s bump-off, his heir Augustus was offered the title of dictator, only he declined it. Later successors also declined the title of dictator, and usage of the title soon macerated among Roman rulers.

The term comes from Latin ‘Dictator’, having same meaning as in English language, originating in ‘dicio’: ‘exert authority’, ‘make a decision’.

Modern era

[edit]

Country ratings for 2016 from Freedom House’s
Freedom in the World 2017
[6]


 Costless (86)


 Partly Free (59)


 Not Gratuitous (50)

2017 Democracy Index past
The Economist
in which countries marked in unlike shades of red are considered undemocratic, with many beingness dictatorships.[7]

As tardily every bit the 2nd one-half of the 19th century, the term
dictator
had occasional positive implications. For case, during the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, the national leader Lajos Kossuth was ofttimes referred to as dictator, without any negative connotations, by his supporters and detractors alike, although his official title was that of regent-president.[10]
When creating a provisional executive in Sicily during the Expedition of the Yard in 1860, Giuseppe Garibaldi officially causeless the title of “Dictator” (encounter Dictatorship of Garibaldi). Shortly afterwards, during the 1863 January Uprising in Poland, “Dictator” was also the official title of 4 leaders, the first beingness Ludwik Mierosławski.

By that fourth dimension, yet, the term
dictator
assumed an invariably negative connotation. In popular usage, a
dictatorship
is ofttimes associated with brutality and oppression. As a result, it is often as well used every bit a term of abuse against political opponents. The term has also come to exist associated with megalomania. Many dictators create a cult of personality effectually themselves and they have also come to grant themselves increasingly grandiloquent titles and honours. For instance, Idi Amin Dada, who had been a British army lieutenant prior to Uganda’southward independence from Britain in October 1962, subsequently styled himself “His Excellency, President for Life, Field Marshal Al Hadji Doctor[A]
Idi Amin Dada, VC,[B]
DSO, MC, Conqueror of the British Empire in Africa in General and Uganda in Detail
“.[11]
In the moving picture
The Great Dictator
(1940), Charlie Chaplin satirized not merely Adolf Hitler just the institution of dictatorship itself.

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Chivalrous dictatorship

[edit]

A benevolent dictatorship refers to a regime in which an disciplinarian leader exercises absolute political power over the state but is perceived to do so with the regard for benefit of the population every bit a whole, standing in dissimilarity to the decidedly malevolent stereotype of a dictator. A benevolent dictator may allow for some economic liberalization or democratic decision-making to exist, such as through public referendums or elected representatives with express power, and often makes preparations for a transition to 18-carat democracy during or afterward their term. It might exist seen as a republic, a form of enlightened despotism. The label has been practical to leaders such as Ioannis Metaxas of Greece (1936–41), Mustafa Kemal Atatürk of Turkey (1923–38), Josip Broz Tito of Yugoslavia (1953–80),[12]
and Lee Kuan Yew of Singapore (1959–90).[13]

Military roles

[edit]

The association betwixt a dictator and the military is a common one; many dictators take not bad pains to emphasize their connections with the military and they frequently wear armed services uniforms. In some cases, this is perfectly legitimate; Francisco Franco was a general in the Castilian Army before he became Chief of State of Kingdom of spain;[14]
Manuel Noriega was officially commander of the Panamanian Defense Forces. In other cases, the clan is mere pretense.

Oversupply manipulation

[edit]

Some dictators have been masters of crowd manipulation, such every bit Mussolini and Hitler.[
commendation needed
]

Others were more prosaic speakers, such as Stalin and Franco. Typically the dictator’s people seize control of all media, censor or destroy the opposition, and give strong doses of propaganda daily, often built around a cult of personality.[15]


Mussolini and Hitler used similar, modest titles referring to them as “the Leader”. Mussolini used “Il Duce” and Hitler was generally referred to as “der Führer”, meaning ‘Leader’ in High german language. Franco used a similar title “El Caudillo” (“the Caput”, ‘the chieftain’)[sixteen]
and for Stalin his adopted name became synonyms with his role as the absolute leader. For Mussolini, Hitler, and Franco, the use of modest, not-traditional titles displayed their accented power even stronger as they did not need whatsoever, non even a historic legitimacy either. Even so, in the case of Franco, the title “Caudillo” did have a longer history for political-military figures in both Latin America and Spain. Franco also used the phrase “By the Grace of God” on coinage or other material displaying him as
Caudillo, whereas Hitler and Mussolini rarely used such monarchical-associated linguistic communication or imagery.

Criticism

[edit]

The usage of the term
dictator
in western media has been criticized past the left-leaning organisation Fairness & Accuracy in Reporting as “Code for Regime Nosotros Don’t Like”. According to them, leaders that would generally be considered authoritarian merely are allied with the United states of america such as Paul Biya or Nursultan Nazarbayev are rarely referred to as “dictators”, while leaders of countries opposed to Us policy such every bit Nicolas Maduro or Bashar Al-Assad have the term applied to them much more liberally.[17]

Mod usage in formal titles

[edit]

Because of its negative and pejorative connotations, modern authoritarian leaders very rarely (if ever) employ the term
dictator
in their formal titles, instead they most often simply take title of president. In the 19th century, however, its official usage was more common:[18]

  • The Dictatorial Authorities of Sicily (27 May – 4 November 1860) was a conditional executive government appointed by Giuseppe Garibaldi to dominion Sicily. The regime ended when Sicily’southward looting into the Kingdom of Italy was ratified by plebiscite.[19]
  • Romuald Traugutt was Dictator of Poland from 17 October 1863 to ten April 1864.[20]
  • The Dictatorial Regime of the Philippines (1898–1898) was an insurgent government in the Philippines which was headed past Emilio Aguinaldo, who formally held the title of Dictator.[21]
    The dictatorial government was superseded past the revolutionary government with Aguinaldo as president.

Human rights abuses

[edit]

Over time, dictators have been known to utilize tactics that violate human rights. For instance, under the Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin, government policy was enforced by secret police and the Gulag system of prison labour camps. Most Gulag inmates were non political prisoners, although significant numbers of political prisoners could be establish in the camps at any one time. Data collected from Soviet athenaeum gives the death toll from Gulags as 1,053,829.[22]
Other human being rights abuses by the Soviet land included homo experimentation, the use of psychiatry as a political weapon and the denial of freedom of religion, assembly, speech and clan.[
commendation needed
]

Similar crimes were committed during Chairman Mao Zedong’s dominion over the People’s Commonwealth of Cathay during Red china’due south Cultural Revolution, where Mao gear up out to purge dissidents, primarily through the use of youth groups strongly committed to his cult of personality.[23]

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Some dictators accept been associated with genocide on sure races or groups; the almost notable and wide-reaching example is the Holocaust, Adolf Hitler’s genocide of eleven million people, 6 million of which were Jews.[24]
Later on in Autonomous Kampuchea, General Secretary Pol Pot and his policies killed an estimated 1.vii one thousand thousand people (out of a population of 7 million) during his iv-yr dictatorship.[25]
As a effect, Political leader Pot is sometimes described as “the Hitler of Kingdom of cambodia” and “a genocidal tyrant”.[26]

The International Criminal Courtroom issued an arrest warrant for Sudan’south military dictator Omar al-Bashir over alleged state of war crimes in Darfur.[27]

Encounter also

[edit]

  • Disciplinarian personality
  • Chivalrous dictator for life
  • Chinese Communist Party
  • Workers’ Party of Korea
  • Democracy Index
  • Dictator novel
  • Emergency powers
  • Greek junta
  • List of political leaders who suspended the constitution
  • Nazi Party
  • Strongman (politics)
  • Supreme Leader
  • Totalitarianism

References

[edit]

Notes

[edit]

  • A
    ^

    He conferred a doctorate of law on himself from Makerere University.[28]
  • B
    ^

    The Victorious Cantankerous (VC) was a medal made to emulate the British Victoria Cross.[29]

Citations

[edit]


  1. ^


    “Lessons in On-Line Reference PublishingMerriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary. Merriam-WebsterMerriam-Webster’s Collegiate Thesaurus. Merriam-WebsterMerriam-Webster’s Collegiate Encyclopedia. Merriam-Webster”.
    The Library Quarterly.
    71
    (iii): 392–399. July 2001. doi:10.1086/603287. ISSN 0024-2519.



  2. ^


    “Lessons in On-Line Reference PublishingMerriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary. Merriam-WebsterMerriam-Webster’south Collegiate Thesaurus. Merriam-WebsterMerriam-Webster’south Collegiate Encyclopedia. Merriam-Webster”.
    The Library Quarterly.
    71
    (3): 392–399. July 2001. doi:10.1086/603287. ISSN 0024-2519.



  3. ^


    Papaioannou, Kostadis; vanZanden, Jan Luiten (2015). “The Dictator Effect: How long years in role affect economic evolution”.
    Journal of Institutional Economics.
    11
    (1): 111–139. doi:10.1017/S1744137414000356. S2CID 154309029.



  4. ^


    Olson, Mancur (1993). “Dictatorship, Democracy, and Development”.
    American Political Science Review.
    87
    (3): 567–576. doi:10.2307/2938736. JSTOR 2938736.



  5. ^


    Le Glay, Marcel. (2009).
    A history of Rome. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN978-1-4051-8327-seven. OCLC 760889060. Archived from the original on 2020-07-25. Retrieved
    2020-05-21
    .



  6. ^

    Freedom in The World 2017 – Populists and Autocrats: The Dual Threat to Global Commonwealth Archived 2017-07-27 at the Wayback Automobile by
    Liberty House, Jan 31, 2017

  7. ^


    “Commonwealth Alphabetize 2017 – Economist Intelligence Unit of measurement”
    (PDF).
    EIU.com. Archived from the original
    (PDF)
    on 18 February 2018. Retrieved
    17 February
    2018
    .



  8. ^

    “The brutal cardinal African dictator whose playboy son faces French corruption trial”.
    The Independent. 12 September 2016.

  9. ^

    “The V Worst Leaders In Africa”.
    Forbes. nine Feb 2012.

  10. ^


    Macartney, Carlile Aylmer (September xv, 2020).
    Lajos Kossuth. Encyclopedia Britannica. Archived from the original on November one, 2020. Retrieved
    October 31,
    2020
    .



  11. ^


    Keatley, Patrick (18 August 2003). “Obituary: Idi Amin”.
    The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 2013-12-05. Retrieved
    2008-03-eighteen
    .



  12. ^


    Shapiro, Susan; Shapiro, Ronald (2004).
    The Curtain Rises: Oral Histories of the Fall of Communism in Eastern Europe. McFarland. ISBN978-0-7864-1672-1. Archived from the original on 2021-05-12. Retrieved
    2019-01-19
    .



    “…All Yugoslavs had educational opportunities, jobs, food, and housing regardless of nationality. Tito, seen by most every bit a benevolent dictator, brought peaceful co-existence to the Balkan region, a region historically synonymous with factionalism.”

  13. ^


    Miller, Matt (2012-05-02). “What Singapore can teach u.s.”.
    The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Archived from the original on 2016-03-eleven. Retrieved
    2015-xi-25
    .



  14. ^


    Thomas, Hugh (1977).
    The Spanish Civil State of war. pp. 421–424. ISBN978-0-06-014278-0.



  15. ^


    Morstein, Marx Fritz; et al. (March 2007).
    Propaganda and Dictatorship. Princeton UP. ISBN978-i-4067-4724-nine.



  16. ^


    Hamil, Hugh Grand., ed. (1992). “Introduction”.
    Caudillos: Dictators in Spanish America. University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 5–6. ISBN978-0-8061-2428-5.



  17. ^


    “Dictator: Media Code for ‘Government We Don’t Similar’“.
    FAIR. 2019-04-11. Archived from the original on 2021-04-16. Retrieved
    2021-04-07
    .



  18. ^

    Moisés Prieto, ed.
    Dictatorship in the Nineteenth Century: Conceptualisations, Experiences, Transfers
    (Routledge, 2021).

  19. ^

    Cesare Vetter, “Garibaldi and the dictatorship: Features and cultural sources.” in
    Dictatorship in the Nineteenth Century
    (Routledge, 2021) pp. 113-132.

  20. ^

    Stefan Kieniewicz, “Polish Society and the Insurrection of 1863.”
    Past & Present
    37 (1967): 130-148.

  21. ^


    “The First Philippine Democracy”. National Historical Commission. 7 September 2012. Archived from the original on 27 January 2017. Retrieved
    26 May
    2018
    .
    On June 20, Aguinaldo issued a prescript organizing the judiciary, and on June 23, again upon Mabini’due south advice, major changes were promulgated and implemented: change of government from Dictatorial to Revolutionary; change of the Executive championship from Dictator to President



  22. ^

    “Gulag Prisoner Population Statistics from 1934 to 1953.”
    Wasatch.edu. Wasatch, n.d. Web. 16 July 2016: “According to a 1993 study of Soviet archival data, a full of 1,053,829 people died in the Gulag from 1934 to 1953. All the same, taking into account that it was common do to release prisoners who were either suffering from incurable diseases or on the betoken of death, the actual Gulag death toll was somewhat higher, amounting to 1,258,537 in 1934–53, or 1.half dozen meg deaths during the whole menstruum from 1929 to 1953..”

  23. ^


    “Remembering the night days of Red china’south Cultural Revolution”.
    S China Morning time Post. eighteen August 2012. Archived from the original on 2018-06-09. Retrieved
    2021-07-xv
    .



  24. ^


    “The Holocaust”.
    The National WWII Museum | New Orleans. Archived from the original on 2021-07-xv. Retrieved
    2021-07-15
    .



  25. ^

    “Pinnacle 15 Toppled Dictators”.
    Time. 20 October 2011. Archived from the original on 2013-08-24. Retrieved
    4 March
    2017
    .



  26. ^

    William Branigin, Architect of Genocide Was Unrepentant to the End Archived 2013-05-09 at the Wayback Motorcar
    The Washington Mail, April 17, 1998

  27. ^

    “Sudanese dictator Omar al-Bashir faces war crimes charges Archived 2018-05-16 at the Wayback Automobile”.
    The Daily Telegraph. July 14, 2008.

  28. ^


    “Idi Amin: a byword for brutality”.
    News24. 2003-07-21. Archived from the original on 2008-06-05. Retrieved
    2007-12-02
    .



  29. ^


    Lloyd, Lorna (2007).
    Diplomacy with a Difference: The Democracy Office of High Commissioner, 1880–2006. University of Michigan: Martinus Nijhoff. p. 239. ISBN978-90-04-15497-1.


Further reading

[edit]

  • Acemoglu, Daron, and James A. Robinson.
    Economic Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy
    (2009), scholarly approach to comparative political economy excerpt
  • Armillas-Tiseyra, Magalí.
    The Dictator Novel: Writers and Politics in the Global South
    (2019) excerpt
  • Baehr, Peter and Melvin Richter.
    Dictatorship in History and Theory
    (2004) scholarly focus on 19c Europe.
  • Ben-Ghiat, Ruth.
    Strongmen: Mussolini to the Nowadays
    (2020) scholarly analysis of 13 major dictators; excerpt
  • Brooker, Paul.
    Defiant Dictatorships: Communist and Heart-Eastern Dictatorships in a Autonomous Historic period
    (Palgrave Macmillan, 1997). excerpt
  • Costa Pinto, António.
    Latin American Dictatorships in the Era of Fascism: The Corporatist Wave
    (Routledge, 2019) extract
  • Crowson, Nick.
    Facing Fascism: The Conservative Party and the European Dictators 1935-twoscore
    (Routledge, 1997), how the Bourgeois government in Britain dealt with them.
  • Dávila, Jerry.
    Dictatorship in South America
    (2013), covers Brazil, Argentina, and Chile since 1945. excerpt
  • Galván, Javier A.
    Latin American Dictators of the 20th Century: The Lives and Regimes of 15 Rulers
    (2012), brief scholarly summaries; excerpt
  • Hamill, Hugh M.
    Caudillos: dictators in Castilian America
    (U of Oklahoma Press, 1995).
  • Harford Vargas, Jennifer.
    Forms of Dictatorship: Power, Narrative, and Absolutism in the Latina/o Novel
    (Oxford UP, 2017).
  • Kim, Michael et al. eds.
    Mass Dictatorship and Modernity
    (2013) extract
  • Lim, J. and K. Petrone, eds.
    Gender Politics and Mass Dictatorship: Global Perspectives
    (2010) excerpt
  • Lüdtke, Alf.
    Everyday Life in Mass Dictatorship: Collusion and Evasion
    (2015) excerpt
  • Mainwaring, Scott, and Aníbal Pérez-Liñán, eds.
    Democracies and Dictatorships in Latin America: Emergence, Survival, and Fall
    (2014) excerpt
  • Moore Jr, Barrington.
    Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy: Lord and Peasant in the Making of the Mod World
    (1966) online
  • Peake, Lesley.

    Guide To History’s Worst Dictators: From Emperor Nero To Vlad the Impaler And More: Nero Accomplishments
    (2021) extract, pop
  • Rank, Michael.
    History’s Worst Dictators: A Short Guide to the Virtually Brutal Rulers, From Emperor Nero to Ivan the Terrible
    (2013), popular.
  • Spencer, Robert.
    Dictators, Dictatorship and the African Novel
    (Palgrave Macmillan, 2021).
  • Weyland, Kurt.
    Revolution and Reaction: The Diffusion of Authoritarianism in Latin America
    (2019) excerpt
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External links

[edit]


  • The dictionary definition of
    dictator
    at Wiktionary
  • Current Dictators of the World
  • online books on dictatorship



What is the Correct Meaning of the Word Dictatorial

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dictator