Which Kept African-americans From Nominating Candidates for Office

Which Kept African-americans From Nominating Candidates for Office

Frederick Douglass, 1818–1895

For African American presidential candidates in small-scale parties likewise every bit major parties, encounter List of African-American United States presidential and vice presidential candidates.

This article is about African-American candidates for President of the U.s.a.. The article covers only candidates from major parties (including one who briefly left one of the major parties to run). On November 4, 2008, U.S. Senator Barack Obama (D-IL) was elected president of the United States. He was the get-go African American to win a presidential election and the first African American to serve as president of the United States. He was re-elected every bit president in 2012.

19th century

[edit]

Frederick Douglass

[edit]

Frederick Douglass was invited to speak at 1888 Republican National Convention. Afterward, during the roll telephone call vote, he received ane vote, and so was nominally a candidate for the presidency. In those years, the candidates for the position and vice presidency were chosen past state representatives voting at the nominating convention. Many decisions were made past negotiations of state and political party leaders “behind closed doors.” Douglass was not a serious candidate in gimmicky terms.[
citation needed
]

20th century

[edit]

George Edwin Taylor

[edit]

In 1904, George Edwin Taylor was president of the National Negro Autonomous League.[1]
Since 1890 conservative white Southern Democrats had been enacting state laws or constitutional changes that effectively disfranchised most Black voters and were imposing segregation through “Jim Crow” laws. Northern Democrats seemed unwilling and unable to control the excesses of their Southern parties. The National Negro Democratic League was fractured by the fence over the effect of linking the nation’south currency to silver also as to gold. Past 1904, Taylor was positioned to abandon the party and bureau that he had led as president for ii terms. It was not a good fourth dimension to be a Black Democrat. This was close to the nadir of race relations, when the number of lynchings of blacks in the South was high. In addition, scientific racism was gaining acceptance inside the nation’due south intellectual and scientific community (see Nadir of race relations).[
citation needed
]

In 1904 the executive committee of the newly formed National Negro Liberty Political party asked “Gauge” Taylor to exist their candidate for the role of president of the The states.[2]
That party started in Piddling Stone, Arkansas in 1897, when information technology was known every bit the Ex-Slave Petitioners’ Assembly. It was ane of several leagues or assemblies that had formed at the finish of the century to support bills working their way through the U.s. Congress to grant pensions to one-time slaves.[3]
These leagues claimed that membership in an association was required to authorize for a pension, if and when Congress passed such a pecker. In 1900, that Assembly reorganized as the National Industrial Council. In 1903 it added opposition to lynching, Jim Crow laws, disfranchisement, anti-imperialism, and scientific racism to its calendar, broadening its entreatment to Black voters in Northern and Midwestern states. In 1904 the Council moved its headquarters from Arkansas to Chicago, Illinois, and reorganized as the National Negro Civil Freedom Party. It was following a growing wave of blackness migrants from the South to northern cities.[4]

The first national convention of that new party convened in St. Louis, Missouri in July 1904. It intended to field candidates in states that had sizeable Black populations. Its platform included planks that dealt with disfranchisement, insufficient career opportunities for Blacks in the United States military, imperialism, public ownership of railroads, “self-government” for the District of Columbia (Washington, D.C.), lynching, and pensions for ex-slaves. The convention selected “Col.” William Thomas Scott of Eastward St. Louis, Illinois as its 1904 candidate for the office of The states President and William C. Payne, a petty-known teacher from Warrenton, Virginia as his vice-presidential running mate. The 37-year-old Payne, who later founded an industrial school in Puerto Rico, had served equally a Motel Steward on the
USS Dixie
during the Spanish–American War.[5]
[6]
After convention delegates had left St. Louis, Scott was arrested and jailed for having failed to pay a fine imposed in 1901. The party’s executive committee turned to Taylor (who had simply resigned as president of the National Negro Autonomous League) to lead the political party’southward ticket.[7]

Taylor’southward campaign in 1904 was unsuccessful. The party was unable to get together 300 speakers to support his candidacy nor to field half dozen,000 candidates for local offices. No newspaper endorsed this political party. State laws kept the party from listing candidates officially on ballot ballots. The party was unable to get Taylor’s name added to any state ballot. The votes he received were not recorded in land records. William Scott later on estimated that the party had received 65,000 votes nationwide, a number that could not be verified.[8]

Channing E. Phillips

[edit]

At the 1968 Autonomous National Convention, held in Chicago, Channing Eastward. Phillips, a minister and civil rights leader, was placed in nomination for President of the United states of america. He received 67.5 votes.[9]

Per Dick Gregory Wiki , “ Gregory ran for President of the United States in 1968 as a write-in candidate of the Liberty and Peace Party, which had cleaved off from the Peace and Liberty Party.”

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Shirley Chisholm

[edit]

In 1972, Shirley Chisholm, United states of america Congresswoman from New York, was a candidate for the Autonomous Party nomination and participated in the Democratic primaries in numerous states.[x]
She campaigned in 12 states and won 28 delegates.[eleven]
In the balloting at the 1972 Democratic National Convention, she gained boosted votes from disaffected Democrats and concluded with a total of 152 delegates.[10]

Jesse Jackson

[edit]

In the 1984 presidential election and 1988 presidential election, Jesse Jackson was the outset major-party black candidate to run nationwide primary campaigns and to win individual states’ primaries or caucuses. He competed as a Democrat.[12]
In 1984, he garnered effectually three million votes in the primaries and 1988, about 7 1000000.[13]

Alan Keyes

[edit]

In 1992, Alan Keyes received a vote for the presidential nomination at the Republican National Convention.[14]
He did not campaign for President (he was the Republican nominee for U.S. Senate in Maryland that yr). He became the starting time African-American candidate to run in the Republican presidential primaries in 1996, but he did not win any state’s primary or conclave.[
citation needed
]

21st century

[edit]

Barack Obama

[edit]

Barack Obama was born to an American mother of European descent (except for at least 1 African ancestor in the colonial period – Punch) and an African father. His mother, Ann Dunham (1942–1995), was born in Wichita, Kansas; she was mostly of English descent,[15]
with some German, Irish, Scottish, Swiss, and Welsh ancestry.[xvi]
His father, Barack Obama Sr. (1936–1982),[17]
was a Luo Kenyan from Nyang’oma Kogelo.[18]
[19]
His parents had met and married in Hawai’i. They separated and divorced when he was a kid.

Obama was identified as a potential candidate for president of the U.Due south. after his voice communication at the 2004 Autonomous National Convention.[20]
A Democrat, Obama was elected to the U.South. Senate in 2004.[21]
The distinct possibility of an African American condign elected was realized as the Democratic chief elections got underway in early 2008. Obama emerged as a serious contender for the nomination[22]
and was the start African American to win the designation of a major party in a The states presidential election. As the Democratic Party’s nominee, he won the general election on November four, 2008. On January 20, 2009, he was sworn in as the first African-American president of the United States. He was re-elected to a second term as president on November half-dozen, 2012.

Other candidates

[edit]

Alan Keyes ran for president again in 2000 and in 2008.[
citation needed
]

In 2004, Carol Moseley Braun and Al Sharpton were unsuccessful candidates in the Autonomous primaries.

“Tea Party” Republican Herman Cain staged a run for the presidency in 2012. He received a brief surge of attention and popularity, merely withdrew before any primaries were held.[
commendation needed
]

Neurosurgeon Ben Carson ran for the Republican nomination in the 2016 election. He polled well for a fourth dimension in late 2015, just withdrew after the first Super Tuesday.[
citation needed
]

Carson received 857,039 votes during the Republican primaries; this total represented ii.75% of the votes cast. He was supported by seven delegates at the Republican National Convention.[23]

In early 2019, U.S. senators Kamala Harris[a]
[24]
[25]
[26]
[27]
[28]
[29]
and Cory Booker alleged their presidential campaigns for the 2020 Democratic nomination within weeks of each other.[
citation needed
]

Both withdrew from the race earlier whatsoever nominating contests were held. On Dec 3, 2019, Harris ended her presidential entrada, and Booker followed on Jan 13, 2020.[30]
[31]
Meanwhile, former Massachusetts governor Deval Patrick was a late entrant into the race for the Democratic presidential nomination.[32]

Impact

[edit]

The results of African-American presidential campaigns had ranged from winning the presidency to dropping out earlier chief voting began. Nevertheless, all of the candidates have had a political impact by making sure their voices were a role of the national debate and gaining some attention from their party’s establishment. Chisholm paved the style for African American and female candidates. Her goal was to brand the Democratic Party more responsive to the people. When describing her reasons for running, Chisholm said, “I am not the candidate of black America, although I am blackness and proud. I am not the candidate of the women’south movement of this land, although I am a woman, and I am every bit proud of that…I am the candidate of the people of America.”[33]
In the 1972 principal, Chisholm won more 430,000 votes[34]
in fourteen states and 28 delegates at the Democratic Convention in Miami.[35]
Chisholm provided a boost to George McGovern, the eventual Democratic nominee when she campaigned for him after the convention. Chisholm’s candidacy inspired many women and African Americans to make a difference in politics.[34]
As the first African American and woman to run for the nomination of a major political party, Chisholm paved the way for Jesse Jackson Sr. who would be the next major African American candidate to run. For future candidates, Chisholm advised, “the side by side campaign by a adult female or black must exist well prepared, and well-financed; it must exist planned long in accelerate, and information technology must aim at building a new coalition.”[36]

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Jesse Jackson seemed to follow Chisholm’s advice in his 1984 run for president. His 1984 campaign sought to bring together a “Rainbow Coalition” of African Americans, Hispanics, the poor, the elderly, family farmers, and women that would claiming the bourgeois policies of President Ronald Reagan.[37]
Jackson placed third out of ten candidates for the Democratic nomination with more than three million primary votes.[38]
He won primaries or caucuses in 4 states and the Commune of Columbia. Jackson’s campaign made progress by building on Chisholm’s legacy. His 1984 campaign registered nearly 2 1000000 voters of all racial backgrounds.[39]
By registering then many new voters, Jackson expanded the Democratic Political party’due south base. He as well inspired African American voters. Exit polls showed that almost 12% of all Black voters were participating for the commencement time.[39]
Jackson’s campaign won him a speaking slot at the 1984 Autonomous Convention, which provided a national platform for him to present his agenda.[38]
In his 1988 entrada, Jackson increased his support to 6.ix million primary votes and won 9 states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico.[40]

Sharpton and Moseley Braun followed Jackson’due south campaign when they ran for the Democratic presidential nomination in 2004. Moseley Braun, having already made history as the merely African American woman elected to the United States Senate, became the most visible female candidate to run for the 2004 Democratic presidential nomination. She advocated for expanding opportunity and encouraged women to seek positions of ability. “Now is the time for Democrats to renew hope that we will go out [the American Dream] for the side by side generation in even better shape than nosotros found it,” Moseley Braun said, “And a woman tin pb the way.”[41]
Though Moseley Braun concluded her entrada in January 2004, she earned a speaking slot at the Democratic Convention in Boston where she had a national platform to advocate for equal rights.[42]

Sharpton’s 2004 campaign also focused on equal rights. In describing why he was running, Sharpton said, “ I think if nosotros stand up upward for workers’ rights, stand for a peace programme worldwide, stand up up for the constitutional rights of every American, those people will come up back [to the Democratic Party], and those people are the bulk of Americans.”[43]
Like Moseley Braun, Sharpton’southward campaign allowed him to participate in the early nationally televised Democratic Political party chief debates, and earned him a speaking slot at the 2004 Democratic Convention, the same year future president Barack Obama gained national attention for his convention speech communication.

On the Republican side, Keyes first ran for the nomination in 1996 seeking to go his political party to focus on social issues such as abortion. Keyes garnered a significant amount of free media during this campaign.[44]
[45]
The number of main votes Keyes received increased from his 1996 entrada (471,716) to his 2000 entrada (914,548) simply his vote full decreased in his 2008 master run (58,977).[46]

African American candidates have a variety of reasons for running for president. Some candidates run because they call up they tin win. Others run to influence the national debate past advocating for specific policy proposals. Some run for a combination of these reasons.[47]

See also

[edit]

  • African-American heritage of presidents of the United states of america

Notes

[edit]


  1. ^

    Kamala Harris is an American of Jamaican and Tamil Indian descent. Her mother was a Tamil Indian breast-cancer scientist who immigrated to the United States from Madras, India, in 1960. Her begetter is a black Jamaican who emigrated from Jamaica to the U.S. in 1961.

References

[edit]


  1. ^

    Mouser,
    For Labor, Race, and Liberty, pp. 102-106.

  2. ^


    Ottumwa
    (Iowa)
    Daily Courier, 22 July 1904, p.four.

  3. ^

    James Davidson, “Encountering the Ex-Slave Reparation Movement from the Grave: The National Industrial Council and National Liberty Party, 1901-1907,”
    The Journal of African American History
    97 (2012), 13-38.

  4. ^


    Atlanta
    (Georgia)
    Constitution, 27 July 1903, p.9.

  5. ^

    “Others: Third Parties During The Populist Period, by Darcy Richardson, p 381.

  6. ^

    For accounts of the convention, see
    St. Louis
    (Missouri)
    Palladium, 16 July 1904, p.1;
    Washington Bee, 3 September 1904, p.i.

  7. ^


    Daily Illinois State Register, 14 July 1904;
    St. Louis
    (Missouri)
    Republic, 24 July 1904.

  8. ^


    The Marshfield
    (Wisconsin)
    Times, 19 February 1905, p.three;
    Daily Illinois State Journal, 29 January 1905, p.1.

  9. ^


    McQuiston, John T. (Nov 12, 1987). “Channing E. Phillips Dies at 59; Minister and Civil Rights Leader”.
    New York Times.


  10. ^


    a




    b




    “Shirley Chisholm’s 1972 Presidential Entrada”. Archived from the original on 19 January 2009. Retrieved
    2009-01-20
    .
    In July of 1971 Shirley Chisholm, Member of Congress from New York’due south Twelfth Commune, began to explore the possibility of running for President. When she formally appear her candidacy the following January 25, she became the outset woman and the first African American to seek the nomination of the Democratic Party for the nation’s highest office.



  11. ^

    Business firm Resolution 97, Recognizing Contributions, Achievements, and Dedicated Work of Shirley Anita Chisholm, [Congressional Tape: June 12, 2001 (House)] [Page H3019-H3025] From the Congressional Record Online via GPO Access [wais.access.gpo.gov] [DOCID:cr12jn01-85].

  12. ^


    Apple, R. Westward. (Apr 29, 1988). “Jackson Is Seen as Winning a Solid Identify in History”.
    The New York Times. Archived from the original on thirteen February 2009. Retrieved
    2009-01-xx
    .
    Whether or not he is elected President, whether or not he is even nominated for Vice President, whether or non he wins more primaries, the world is likely to remember 1988 as the Yr of Jackson — the year when, for the first time in American history, a black made a serious bid for the White Business firm and was taken seriously by the electorate.



  13. ^


    Jr, Due east. J. Dionne (1988-06-13). “Jackson Share of Votes Past Whites Triples in ’88”.
    The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved
    2021-eleven-17
    .



  14. ^


    “U.s. President – R Convention Race – Aug 17, 1992”. Our Campaigns. Retrieved
    2020-01-16
    .



  15. ^

    Obama (1995, 2004), p. 12.

  16. ^


    Smolenyak, Megan Smolenyak (November–Dec 2008). “The quest for Obama’s Irish gaelic roots”.
    Ancestry.
    26
    (half dozen): 46–47, 49. ISSN 1075-475X. Retrieved
    Dec xx,
    2011
    .

    • Smolenyak, Megan (May 9, 2011). “Tracing Barack Obama’s Roots to Moneygall”.
      HuffPost
      . Retrieved
      May 19,
      2011
      .

    • Rising, David; Noelting, Christoph (June four, 2009). “Researchers: Obama has High german roots”.
      USA Today. Associated Press. Retrieved
      May thirteen,
      2010
      .

    • Hutton, Brian; Nickerson, Matthew (May 3, 2007). “For sure, Obama’s South Side Irish; I of his roots traces back to small hamlet”
      (paid archive).
      Chicago Sunday-Times. Printing Association of Ireland. p. three. Retrieved
      November 24,
      2008
      .

    • Jordon, Mary (May 13, 2007). “Tiny Irish village is latest place to claim Obama as its own”.
      The Washington Mail service. p. A14. Retrieved
      May 13,
      2007
      .

    • David Williamson (July 5, 2008). “Wales link in US presidential candidate’s by”. walesonline.co.uk. Archived from the original on May 21, 2011. Retrieved
      April 30,
      2011
      .


  17. ^


    Kipkemboi, Andrew (June 1, 2008). “Kenyans Enthusiastic Nearly Obama”.
    Baltimore Sun. Archived from the original on February 22, 2020. Retrieved
    Jan 16,
    2020
    .



  18. ^


    Jacobs, Emerge (2011-07-06). “President Obama’south Begetter: A ‘Bold And Reckless Life’“. NPR. Retrieved
    2020-01-16
    .



  19. ^


    David R Arnott. “From Obama’s onetime school to his ancestral hamlet, world reacts to The states presidential election”. Nbcnews.com. Retrieved
    2020-01-xvi
    .



  20. ^

    Zweigenhaft, R.L. and Domhoff, Chiliad.Westward. (2006)
    Diversity in the Ability Elite: How it Happened, why information technology Matters.
    Rowman & Littlefield. p 140.

  21. ^


    “America Votes 2004: U.S. Senate / Illinois”. CNN. 2005. Retrieved
    January xvi,
    2020
    .



  22. ^

    Parker, J. (June iii, 2008) “Obama Becomes First Black Democratic Presidential Nominee: The Third African American Senator Since Reconstruction Makes History.” ABC News. Retrieved ane/19/09.

  23. ^


    “Republican Convention 2016”.
    www.thegreenpapers.com.



  24. ^


    “The New Face of Politics… An Interview with Kamala Harris”. DesiClub. Archived from the original on Dec 11, 2010. Retrieved
    February 2,
    2011
    .



  25. ^


    “Obituary: Dr. Shyamala G. Harris”.
    San Francisco Chronicle. March 22, 2009. Retrieved
    June 11,
    2017
    .



  26. ^


    “PM Golding congratulates Kamala Harris-girl of Jamaican – on appointment as California’s Start Woman Chaser General”. Jamaican Information Service. Dec 2, 2010. Archived from the original on Jan 15, 2012. Retrieved
    Feb 2,
    2011
    .



  27. ^


    “California Attorney General Kamala Harris marries Douglas Emhoff”.
    The American Bazaar. September 2, 2014.



  28. ^


    Bazelon, Emily (May 25, 2016). “Kamala Harris, a ‘Acme Cop’ in the era of Black Lives Matter”.
    The New York Times Magazine.



  29. ^


    Eliza Relman (2019-06-28). “Donald Trump Jr. shared a racist tweet near Kamala Harris”. Business Insider. Retrieved
    2020-01-sixteen
    .



  30. ^


    Herndon, Astead; Goldmacher, Shane (December 3, 2019). “Kamala Harris Is Dropping Out of 2020 Race”.
    The New York Times
    . Retrieved
    December 3,
    2019

    – via NYTimes.com.



  31. ^


    Cadet, Rebecca (Jan 13, 2020). “Cory Booker ends 2020 presidential campaign”. CNN. Retrieved
    Jan 13,
    2020
    .



  32. ^


    Stevens, Matt (November 14, 2019). “Deval Patrick Joins the 2020 Race: ‘This Won’t Be Easy, and It Shouldn’t Be’“.
    The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved
    Nov fifteen,
    2019
    .



  33. ^

    Gutgold, Nichola D. Paving the Way for Madam President, Lanham, Medico: Lexington Books, 2006. Page 52. Print.
  34. ^


    a




    b



    Glasrud, Bruce A and Cary D. Wintz. African Americans and the Presidency: The Route to the White House. New York: Routledge, 2010. Page 10. Print.

  35. ^

    Gutgold, Nichola D. Paving the Style for Madam President, Lanham, Dr.: Lexington Books, 2006. Page 65. Print.

  36. ^

    Glasrud, Bruce A and Cary D. Wintz. African Americans and the Presidency: The Route to the White House. New York: Routledge, 2010. Page 74. Print.

  37. ^

    Glasrud, Bruce A and Cary D. Wintz. African Americans and the Presidency: The Road to the White House. New York: Routledge, 2010. Folio 119. Print.
  38. ^


    a




    b



    Glasrud, Bruce A and Cary D. Wintz. African Americans and the Presidency: The Road to the White House. New York: Routledge, 2010. Page 120. Print.
  39. ^


    a




    b



    Walters, Ronald Due west. Freedom Is Not Enough. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, Inc., 2005. Page 28. Print.

  40. ^

    Glasrud, Bruce A and Cary D. Wintz. African Americans and the Presidency: The Road to the White Business firm. New York: Routledge, 2010. Page 121. Print.

  41. ^

    Gutgold, Nichola D. Paving the Fashion for Madam President, Lanham, Md: Lexington Books, 2006. Folio 157. Impress.

  42. ^

    Gutgold, Nichola D. Paving the Way for Madam President, Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2006. Page 156. Print.

  43. ^

    Walters, Ronald Westward. Freedom Is Not Plenty. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, Inc., 2005. Page 139. Print.

  44. ^


    “White Firm 2000 – The Republicans”.
    Washingtonpost.com. 1998-01-24. Retrieved
    2020-01-16
    .



  45. ^

    Connolly, Ceci. “The Republicans.” Washington Mail 1998. Online

  46. ^

    Glasrud, Bruce A and Cary D. Wintz. African Americans and the Presidency: The Road to the White Firm. New York: Routledge, 2010. Page 174. Print.

  47. ^

    Glasrud, Bruce A and Cary D. Wintz. African Americans and the Presidency: The Road to the White House. New York: Routledge, 2010. Page 9. Impress.



Which Kept African-americans From Nominating Candidates for Office

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African-American_candidates_for_President_of_the_United_States

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