The Ideas of the Social Gospel Movement Led Directly to

The Ideas of the Social Gospel Movement Led Directly to

efficiency movement
was a major movement in the Usa, Britain and other industrial nations in the early 20th century that sought to place and eliminate waste in all areas of the economy and society, and to develop and implement all-time practices.[i]
The concept covered mechanical, economic, social, and personal improvement.[ii]
The quest for efficiency promised constructive, dynamic management rewarded by growth.[iii]

As a result of the influence of an early proponent, it is more than often known every bit Taylorism.

United States


The efficiency movement played a key office in the Progressive Era in the United States, where information technology flourished 1890–1932.[4]
Adherents argued that all aspects of the economic system, society and government were riddled with waste and inefficiency. Everything would exist better if experts identified the problems and fixed them. The effect was stiff support for building inquiry universities and schools of business concern and engineering, municipal research agencies, also as reform of hospitals and medical schools, and the practice of farming.[five]
Perhaps the best known leaders were engineers Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856–1915), who used a stopwatch to identify the smallest inefficiencies, and Frank Bunker Gilbreth Sr. (1868–1924) who proclaimed there was always “one best way” to fix a trouble.

Leaders including Herbert Croly, Charles R. van Hise, and Richard Ely sought to improve governmental functioning by grooming experts in public service comparable to those in Germany, notably at the Universities of Wisconsin and Pennsylvania. Schools of business organisation administration set up management programs oriented toward efficiency.[6]

Municipal and country efficiency


Many cities set up “efficiency bureaus” to identify waste and apply the best practices. For example, Chicago created an Efficiency Division (1910–sixteen) inside the urban center authorities’southward Civil Service Committee, and private citizens organized the Chicago Bureau of Public Efficiency (1910–32). The onetime pioneered the written report of “personal efficiency,” measuring employees’ performance through new scientific merit systems and efficiency motion

State governments were active also. For example, Massachusetts set upward its “Committee on Economic system and Efficiency” in 1912. It made hundreds of recommendations.[8]



Leading philanthropists such as Andrew Carnegie[9]
and John D. Rockefeller actively promoted the efficiency movement. In his many philanthropic pursuits, Rockefeller believed in supporting efficiency. He said,

To help an inefficient, ill-located, unnecessary school is a waste matter …it is highly probable that plenty money has been squandered on unwise educational projects to take built upwardly a national organisation of higher education adequate to our needs, if the money had been properly directed to that finish.[x]



The conservation move regarding national resources came to prominence during the Progressive Era. Co-ordinate to historian Samuel P. Hays, the conservation movement was based on the “gospel of the efficiency”.[11]

The Massachusetts Commission on Economic system and Efficiency reflected the new concern with conservation. Information technology said in 1912:

The simply proper basis for the protection of game birds, wild fowl and, indeed, all animals is an economic one, and must be based upon advisedly synthetic and properly enforced laws for the conservation of all species for the benefit of future generations of our citizens, rather than based on local opinion. …This expenditure for the protection of fish and game is clearly a wise economy, tending to forbid the anything of birds and other animals valuable to mankind which might otherwise become extinct. Information technology may exist said that Massachusetts and her sister States have suffered irreparable loss by carelessly allowing, for generations past, indiscriminate waste of creature life.[8]

President Roosevelt was the nation’southward foremost conservationist, putting the issue loftier on the national agenda by emphasizing the need to eliminate wasteful uses of limited natural resources. He worked with all the major figures of the move, peculiarly his chief advisor on the thing, Gifford Pinchot. Roosevelt was deeply committed to conserving natural resources, and is considered to be the nation’s first conservation President.[12]

1908 United states of america editorial cartoon on Theodore Roosevelt and conservation

In 1908, Roosevelt sponsored the Briefing of Governors held in the White House, with a focus on natural resources and their most efficient use. Roosevelt delivered the opening address: “Conservation as a National Duty”.

In dissimilarity, environmentalist John Muir promulgated a very dissimilar view of conservation, rejecting the efficiency motivation. Muir instead preached that nature was sacred and humans are intruders who should await merely not develop. Working through the Sierra Club he founded, Muir tried to minimize commercial use of water resources and forests.[13]
While Muir wanted nature preserved for the sake of pure beauty, Roosevelt subscribed to Pinchot’s formulation, “to make the forest produce the largest corporeality of whatever crop or service will be most useful, and keep on producing it for generation later generation of men and trees.”[fourteen]

National politics


In U.S. national politics, the most prominent figure was Herbert Hoover, a trained engineer who played down politics and believed dispassionate, nonpolitical experts could solve the nation’s swell issues, such as ending poverty.[xv]

Subsequently 1929, Democrats blamed the Great Low on Hoover and helped to somewhat discredit the motility.[
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Boston lawyer Louis Brandeis (1856–1941) argued bigness conflicted with efficiency and added a new political dimension to the Efficiency Movement. For instance, while fighting against legalized toll fixing, Brandeis launched an effort to influence congressional policymaking with the help of his friend Norman Hapgood, who was so the editor of
Harper’s Weekly. He coordinated the publication of a serial of articles (Competition Kills,
Efficiency and the One-Price Article, and
How Europe deals with the ane-cost goods), which were also distributed past the lobbying grouping American Fair Trade League to legislators, Supreme Court justices, governors, and xx national magazines.[sixteen]
For his works, he was asked to speak before a congressional commission because the cost-fixing bill he drafted. Here, he stated that “large business organisation is not more than efficient than little business” and that “it is a mistake to suppose that the department stores tin can practise concern cheaper than the petty dealer.”[xvi]
Brandeis ideas on which business is most efficient conflicted with Croly’s positions, which favored efficiency driven by a kind of consolidation gained through large-calibration economic operations.[17]

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As early as 1895 Brandeis had warned of the damage that giant corporations could do to competitors, customers, and their ain workers. The growth of industrialization was creating mammoth companies which he felt threatened the well-being of millions of Americans.[xviii]
The Expletive of Enormousness
he argued, “Efficiency ways greater production with less effort and at less cost, through the emptying of unnecessary waste, human and textile. How else can we promise to reach our social ideals?”[xix]
He also argued against an entreatment to Congress by the country-regulated railroad industry in 1910 seeking an increase in rates. Brandeis explained that instead of passing along increased costs to the consumer, the railroads should pursue efficiency by reducing their overhead and streamlining their operations, initiatives that were unprecedented during the time.[20]

Bedaux system


Charles E. Bedaux: The Bedaux Unit Principle of Industrial Measurement, Journal of Practical Psychology, 1921. PDF, click to read.

The Bedaux system, developed by Franco-American management consultant Charles Bedaux (1886–1944) built on the work of F. W. Taylor and Charles E. Knoeppel.[21]

Its distinctive advancement beyond these earlier thinkers was the Bedaux Unit of measurement or
B, a universal measure for all transmission work.[23]

The Bedaux Arrangement was influential in the U.s. in the 1920s and Europe in the 1930s and 1940s, especially in Britain.[24]

From the 1920s to the 1950s there were nearly k companies in 21 countries worldwide that were run on the Bedaux System, including giants such as Swift’due south, Eastman Kodak, B.F. Goodrich, DuPont, Fiat, ICI and General Electric.[26]

Relation to other movements


Later on movements had echoes of the Efficiency Movement and were more than directly inspired by Taylor and Taylorism. Technocracy, for instance, and others flourished in the 1930s and 1940s.

Postmodern opponents of nuclear energy in the 1970s broadened their attack to attempt to ignominy movements that saw salvation for human gild in technical expertise solitary, or which held that scientists or engineers had any special expertise to offer in the political realm.

Coming into usage in 1990, the Western term lean manufacturing (lean enterprise, lean production, or simply “lean”) refers to a business organisation idea that considered the expenditure of resource for annihilation other than the cosmos of value for the end customer to exist wasteful, and thus a target for elimination. Today the Lean concept is broadening to include a greater range of strategic goals, non merely cost-cut and efficiency.[
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United kingdom of great britain and northern ireland


In engineering, the concept of efficiency was developed in Great britain in the mid-18th century past John Smeaton (1724–1792). Called the “father of ceremonious engineering”, he studied water wheels and steam engines.[30]
In the late 19th century at that place was much talk virtually improving the efficiency of the administration and economic performance of the British Empire.[31]

National Efficiency
was an attempt to discredit the old-fashioned habits, customs and institutions that put the British at a handicap in competition with the world, specially with Deutschland,[32]
which was seen as the prototype of efficiency.[33]
In the early 20th century, “National Efficiency” became a powerful demand — a motion supported by prominent figures across the political spectrum who disparaged sentimental humanitarianism and identified waste as a fault that could no longer exist tolerated. The motility took place in two waves; the first wave from 1899 to 1905 was fabricated urgent by the inefficiencies and failures in the Second Boer War (1899–1902).
magazine reported in 1902 there was “a universal outcry for efficiency in all departments of society, in all aspects of life”.[34]
The 2 most important themes were technocratic efficiency and managerial efficiency. As White (1899) argued vigorously, the empire needed to be put on a concern basis and administered to get meliorate results. The looming threat of Frg, which was widely seen as a much more efficient nation, added urgency after 1902. Politically National Efficiency brought together modernizing Conservatives and Unionists, Liberals who wanted to modernize their political party, and Fabians such as George Bernard Shaw and H. M. Wells, forth with Beatrice and Sidney Webb, who had outgrown socialism and saw the utopia of a scientifically up-to-engagement society supervised by experts such equally themselves. Churchill in 1908 formed an alliance with the Webbs, announcing the goal of a “National Minimum”, covering hours, working conditions, and wages – it was a rubber net below which the individual would not exist allowed to fall.[35]

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Representative legislation included the Educational activity Act of 1902, which emphasized the role of experts in the schools system. Higher education was an important initiative, typified past the growth of the London School of Economics, and the foundation of Imperial College.[37]

There was a pause in the motion betwixt 1904 and 1909, when interest resumed. The most prominent new leaders included Liberals Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George, whose influence brought a parcel of reform legislation that introduced the welfare state to Britain.

Much of the popular and elite support for National Efficiency grew out of business organisation for United kingdom of great britain and northern ireland’s military position, particularly with respect to Germany. The Royal Navy underwent a dramatic modernization, nearly famously in the introduction of the
Dreadnought, which in 1906 revolutionized naval warfare overnight.[
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In Federal republic of germany the efficiency move was called “rationalization” and it was a powerful social and economic forcefulness before 1933. In function it looked explicitly at American models, specially Fordism.[38]
The Bedaux system was widely adopted in the rubber and tire manufacture, despite potent resistance in the socialist labor movement to the Bedaux organization. Continental AG, the leading condom company in Germany, adopted the system and profited heavily from it, thus surviving the Great Depression relatively undamaged and improving its competitive capabilities. However most German language businessmen preferred the home-grown
REFA system
which focused on the standardization of working conditions, tools, and machinery.[39]

“Rationalization” meant college productivity and greater efficiency, promising scientific discipline would bring prosperity. More generally it promised a new level of modernity and was applied to economical product and consumption equally well as public administration. Various versions of rationalization were promoted by industrialists and Social Democrats, by engineers and architects, by educators and academics, by eye class feminists and social workers, by regime officials and politicians of many parties. Information technology was ridiculed past the extremists in the Communist movement. Every bit credo and do, rationalization challenged and transformed non only machines, factories, and vast business enterprises just as well the lives of middle-course and working-class Germans.[40]

Soviet Wedlock


Ideas of Science Management was very popular in the Soviet Union. One of the leading theorists and practitioners of the Scientific Management in Soviet Russia was Alexei Gastev. The Fundamental Constitute of Labour (Tsentralnyi Institut Truda, or TsIT), founded past Gastev in 1921 with Vladimir Lenin’s support, was a veritable citadel of socialist Taylorism. Fascinated by Taylorism and Fordism, Gastev has led a popular movement for the “scientific organization of labor” (Nauchnaya Organizatsiya Truda, or Non). Because of its emphasis on the cognitive components of labor, some scholars consider Gastev’s Non to represent a Marxian variant of cybernetics. As with the concept of ‘Organoprojection’ (1919) past Pavel Florensky, underlying Nikolai Bernstein and Gastev’s approach, lay a powerful homo-machine metaphor.



W. Edwards Deming (1900–1993) brought the efficiency movement to Nihon after Globe War II, teaching pinnacle direction how to improve blueprint (and thus service), product quality, testing and sales (the last through global markets), especially using statistical methods. Deming and so brought his methods back to the U.S. in the form of quality control chosen continuous improvement process.[41]



  1. ^

    Daniel T. Rodgers,
    Atlantic Crossings: Social Politics in a Progressive Age

  2. ^

    Samuel Haber,
    Efficiency and Uplift: Scientific Management in the Progressive Era, 1890–1920

  3. ^

    Jennifer K. Alexander,
    The Mantra of Efficiency: From Waterwheel to Social Control

  4. ^

    Haber (1964)

  5. ^

    W. J. Spillman, “The Efficiency Movement in Its Relation to Agriculture”,
    Register of the American University of Political and Social Science, Vol. 59, (May, 1915), pp. 65–76 in JSTOR

  6. ^

    Stuart Morris, “The Wisconsin Idea and Business Progressivism,”
    Journal of American Studies,
    April 1970, Vol. 4#1 pp. 39–threescore

  7. ^

    Mordecai Lee,
    Bureaus of Efficiency: Reforming Local Regime in the Progressive Era,
    (Marquette Academy Press, 2008) ISBN 978-0-87462-081-8
  8. ^



    Commission on Economy and Efficiency,
    Almanac report of the Commission on Economy and Efficiency
    (Boston, 1913), p 76 online

  9. ^

    Abigail A. Van Slyck,
    Free to All: Carnegie Libraries & American Culture, 1890–1920
    (1998) p. 1

  10. ^

    John D. Rockefeller,
    Random Reminiscences of Men and Events

  11. ^

    Samuel P. Hays,
    Conservation and the Gospel of Efficiency: The Progressive Conservation Movement 1890–1920

  12. ^

    W. Todd Benson,
    President Theodore Roosevelt’s Conservation Legacy

  13. ^

    Roderick Nash,
    Wilderness and the American Mind
    (third ed. 1982), pp. 122–40

  14. ^

    Gifford Pinchot,
    Breaking New Ground
    (1947) p. 32.

  15. ^

    William J. Hairdresser,
    From new era to New Deal: Herbert Hoover, the economists, and American economic policy, 1921–1933
    (1989) p. v
  16. ^



    McCraw, Thomas (2009).
    Prophets of Regulation. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. pp. 103–104. ISBN978-0674716087.

  17. ^

    Levy, David (1985).
    Herbert Croly of the New Republic: The Life and Thought of an American Progressive. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. pp. 157–158. ISBN978-0691047256.

  18. ^

    Melvin I. Urofsky,
    Louis D. Brandeis: a life
    (2009) pp. 300–26

  19. ^

    Louis Brandeis,
    The curse of bigness: miscellaneous papers of Louis D. Brandeis
    edited by Osmond Kessler Fraenkel and Clarence Martin Lewis, (1965) p. 51

  20. ^

    Heath, Joseph (2002).
    The Efficient Society: Why Canada Is As Close To Utopia Every bit It Gets. Toronto: Penguin Canada. ISBN978-0140292480.

  21. ^

    Edward Francis Leopold Brech,
    Productivity in Perspective, 1914-1974
    (Bristol: Thoemmes Press, 2002).
  22. ^



    Michael R. Weatherburn, ‘Scientific Direction at Work: the Bedaux System, Management Consulting, and Worker Efficiency in British Industry, 1914-48’ (Imperial College PhD thesis, 2014).

  23. ^

    Craig R. Littler,
    Development of the Labour Process in Capitalist Societies: a Comparative Study of the Transformation of Piece of work Organization in United kingdom, Japan and the USA
    (London: Heinemann, 1982) entry on Google Books

  24. ^

    Steven Kreis, ‘Charles E. Bedaux’ in
    American National Biography

  25. ^

    Patricia Tisdall,
    Agents of Change: The Development and Do of Management Consultancy
    (London: Heinemann, 1982).

  26. ^

    Matthias Kipping, ‘Consultancies, Institutions and the Diffusion of Taylorism in Britain, Deutschland and France, 1920s to 1950s’,
    Business History
    (1997) PDF from Taylor & Francis online

  27. ^

    Michael Ferguson,
    The Rise of Management Consulting in Britain
    (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2002)

  28. ^

    ‘Christopher D. McKenna,
    The Globe’southward Newest Profession: Management Consulting in the Twentieth Century
    (Cambridge: CUP, 2010). Cambridge University Press

  29. ^

    Alexander (2008) ch. i

  30. ^

    Arnold White,
    Efficiency and empire

  31. ^

    Due west.H. Dawson,
    The German Workman: a Written report in National Efficiency
    (1906) online

  32. ^

    Yard. R. Searle,
    The Quest for National Efficiency, 1899–1914: A Written report in Politics and Political Thought
    (Oxford UP, 1971)

  33. ^

    Chiliad. R. Searle, “The Politics of National Efficiency and of War, 1900–1918” in Chris Wrigley, ed.,
    A Companion to Early 20th-Century Britain
    (Blackwell, 2003) p. 56

  34. ^

    James T. Kloppenberg,
    Uncertain Victory: Social Democracy and Progressivism in European and American Thought, 1870–1920
    (1988) p 475

  35. ^

    Henry Pelling,
    Winston Churchill
    (1989) p. 104

  36. ^

    Searle (1971)

  37. ^

    Mary Nolan, “Housework Made Piece of cake: the Taylorized Housewife in Weimar Deutschland’southward Rationalized Economy,”
    Feminist Studies.
    Book: 16. Outcome: 3. pp 549+

  38. ^

    Paul Erker, “Das Bedaux-System: Neue Aspekte der Historischen Rationalisierungsforschung,[“The Bedaux system: new aspects of inquiry on the history of rationalization”],
    Zeitschrift für Unternehmensgeschichte,
    1996, Vol. 41#2 pp 139–158

  39. ^

    Nolan (1975)

  40. ^

    Andrea Gabor,
    The Man Who Discovered Quality: How Westward. Edwards Deming Brought the Quality Revolution to America
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  • Alexander, Jennifer One thousand.
    The Mantra of Efficiency: From Waterwheel to Social Command,
    (2008), international perspective excerpt and text search
  • Bruce, Kyle, and Chris Nyland. “Scientific Management, Institutionalism, and Business Stabilization: 1903–1923,”
    Journal of Economic Issues
    Vol. 35, No. 4 (Dec., 2001), pp. 955–978 in JSTOR
  • Chandler, Alfred D., Jr.
    The Visible Mitt: The Managerial Revolution in American Business concern
  • Fry, Brian R.
    Mastering Public Assistants: From Max Weber to Dwight Waldo
    (1989) online edition
  • Hays, Samuel P.
    Conservation and the Gospel of Efficiency: The Progressive Conservation Movement 1890–1920
  • Haber, Samuel.
    Efficiency and Uplift: Scientific Management in the Progressive Era, 1890–1920
  • Hawley, Ellis W. “Herbert Hoover, the Commerce Secretariat, and the vision of the ‘Associative State’.”
    Periodical of American History,
    (1974) 61: 116–140. in JSTOR
  • Jensen, Richard. “Democracy, Republicanism and Efficiency: The Values of American Politics, 1885–1930,” in Byron Shafer and Anthony Badger, eds,
    Contesting Democracy: Substance and Construction in American Political History, 1775–2000
    (U of Kansas Printing, 2001) pp 149–180; online version
  • Jordan, John M.
    Motorcar-Age Credo: Social Engineering and American Liberalism, 1911–1939
  • Kanigel, Robert.
    The One Best Style: Frederick Winslow Taylor and the Enigma of Efficiency. (Penguin, 1997).
  • Knoedler; Janet T. “Veblen and Technical Efficiency,”
    Journal of Economic Problems, Vol. 31, 1997
  • Knoll, Michael: From Kidd to Dewey: The Origin and Meaning of Social Efficiency.
    Journal of Curriculum Studies
    41 (June 2009), No. three, pp. 361–391.
  • Lamoreaux, Naomi and Daniel Thou. G. Raft eds.
    Coordination and Data: Historical Perspectives on the Organization of Enterprise
    University of Chicago Printing, 1995
  • Lee, Mordecai.
    Bureaus of Efficiency: Reforming Local Government in the Progressive Era
    (Marquette University Press, 2008) ISBN 978-0-87462-081-8
  • Merkle, Judith A.
    Management and Credo: The Legacy of the International Scientific Management Movement
  • Nelson, Daniel.
    Frederick Due west. Taylor and the Rise of Scientific Management
  • Nelson, Daniel.
    Managers and Workers: Origins of the Twentieth-Century Factory Organisation in the United States, 1880–1920
    2d ed. (1995).
  • Noble, David F.
    America past Design
  • Nolan, Mary.

    Visions of Modernity: American Business and the Modernization of Federal republic of germany

  • Nolan, Mary. “Housework Made Like shooting fish in a barrel: the Taylorized Housewife in Weimar Deutschland’s Rationalized Economy,”
    Feminist Studies.
    (1975) Volume: sixteen. Issue: three. pp 549+
  • Searle, G. R.
    The quest for national efficiency: a study in British politics and political idea, 1899–1914
  • Stillman Ii, Richard J.
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Main sources


  • Dewey, Melville. “Efficiency Society”
    Encyclopedia Americana
    (1918)online vol 9 p 720
  • Emerson, Harrington, “Efficiency Engineering”
    Encyclopedia Americana
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    Scientific Direction: Early Sociology of Management and Organizations
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    Shop Management
    The Principles of Scientific Management
    (1911) and
    Testimony Earlier the Special Business firm Commission
  • White, Arnold.
    Efficiency and empire
    (1901) online edition, influential study regarding the British Empire

The Ideas of the Social Gospel Movement Led Directly to