An Agreement Reached by the Council of Trent Was That

An Agreement Reached by the Council of Trent Was That

16th ecumenical council of the Catholic Church building

Council of Trent

Council of Trent, painting in the Museo del Palazzo del Buonconsiglio, Trento

Date 1545–63
Accepted by Catholic Church

Previous council

Fifth Council of the Lateran (1512–1517)

Next council

Kickoff Vatican Quango (1869–1870)
Convoked past Paul III
  • Paul III
  • Julius 3
  • Pius IV

virtually 255 during the final sessions

  • Protestantism
  • Counter-Reformation

Documents and statements

Seventeen dogmatic decrees covering then-disputed aspects of Cosmic religion

Chronological list of ecumenical councils

Council of Trent
Concilium Tridentinum), held between 1545 and 1563 in Trent (or Trento, in northern Italy), was the 19th ecumenical council of the Catholic Church.[one]
Prompted by the Protestant Reformation, information technology has been described as the embodiment of the Counter-Reformation.[2]

The Council issued condemnations of what it divers to be heresies committed by proponents of Protestantism, and as well issued primal statements and clarifications of the Church’south doctrine and teachings, including scripture, the Biblical catechism, sacred tradition, original sin, justification, salvation, the sacraments, the Mass, and the veneration of saints.[4]
The Quango met for twenty-five sessions between 13 December 1545 and 4 December 1563.[5]
Pope Paul III, who convoked the Council, oversaw the first 8 sessions (1545–47), while the twelfth to sixteenth sessions (1551–52) were overseen by Pope Julius Three and the seventeenth to xx-fifth sessions (1562–63) by Pope Pius Iv.

The consequences of the Quango were as well significant with regard to the Church’s liturgy and practices. In its decrees, the Council made the Latin Vulgate the official Biblical text of the Roman Church building (without prejudice to the original texts in Hebrew and Greek, nor to other traditional translations of the Church, only favoring the Latin language over vernacular translations, such as the controversial English-language Tyndale Bible). In doing so, they deputed the creation of a revised and standardized Vulgate in lite of textual criticism, although this was not achieved until the 1590s. The Council besides officially affirmed (for the 2d fourth dimension at an ecumenical council) the traditional Catholic Canon of biblical books in response to the increasing Protestant exclusion of the deuterocanonical books.[2]
The former dogmatic affirmation of the Approved books was at the Council of Florence in the 1441 bull Cantate Domino, as affirmed by Pope Leo 13 in his 1893 encyclical Providentissimus Deus (#twenty). In 1565, a year after the Council finished its work, Pius IV issued the Tridentine Creed (later
Tridentum, Trent’south Latin name) and his successor Pius V then issued the Roman Catechism and revisions of the Breviary and Missal in, respectively, 1566, 1568 and 1570. These, in turn, led to the codification of the Tridentine Mass, which remained the Church’s master grade of the Mass for the side by side four hundred years.

More than three hundred years passed until the side by side ecumenical council, the First Vatican Council, was convened in 1869.

Groundwork information


Obstacles and events earlier the Council’southward problem area


Pope Paul Iii, convener of the Council of Trent.

On fifteen March 1517, the 5th Council of the Lateran closed its activities with a number of reform proposals (on the selection of bishops, taxation, censorship and preaching) but non on the major issues that confronted the Church in Germany and other parts of Europe. A few months afterward, on 31 October 1517, Martin Luther issued his
95 Theses
in Wittenberg.

A general, free council in Germany


Luther’s position on ecumenical councils shifted over time,[vi]
but in 1520 he appealed to the German princes to oppose the papal Church, if necessary with a quango in Germany,[7]
open and free of the Papacy. After the Pope condemned in
Exsurge Domine
fifty-2 of Luther’s theses equally heresy, German language opinion considered a council the best method to reconcile existing differences. German language Catholics, macerated in number, hoped for a council to clarify matters.[8]

It took a generation for the council to materialise, partly due to papal fears over potentially renewing a schism over conciliarism; partly because Lutherans demanded the exclusion of the papacy from the Council; partly because of ongoing political rivalries between French republic and the Holy Roman Empire; and partly due to the Turkish dangers in the Mediterranean.[8]
Under Pope Clement VII (1523–34), troops of the Cosmic Holy Roman Emperor Charles V sacked Papal Rome in 1527, “raping, killing, called-for, stealing, the similar had not been seen since the Vandals”. Saint Peter’due south Basilica and the Sistine Chapel were used for horses.[10]
Pope Clement, fearful of the potential for more violence, delayed calling the Quango.[9]

Charles Five strongly favoured a council but needed the support of King Francis I of France, who attacked him militarily. Francis I generally opposed a full general council due to partial support of the Protestant crusade inside French republic. In 1532 he agreed to the Nuremberg Religious Peace granting religious liberty to the Protestants, and in 1533 he further complicated matters when suggesting a general council to include both Cosmic and Protestant rulers of Europe that would devise a compromise betwixt the two theological systems. This proposal met the opposition of the Pope for it gave recognition to Protestants and also elevated the secular Princes of Europe to a higher place the clergy on church matters. Faced with a Turkish attack, Charles held the support of the Protestant German rulers, all of whom delayed the opening of the Quango of Trent.[11]

Occasion, sessions, and attendance


In reply to the Papal bull
Exsurge Domine
of Pope Leo X (1520), Martin Luther burned the document and appealed for a general quango. In 1522 German diets joined in the appeal, with Charles 5 seconding and pressing for a quango as a means of reunifying the Church and settling the Reformation controversies. Pope Clement VII (1523–1534) was vehemently against the idea of a council, agreeing with Francis I of France, after Pope Pius 2, in his bull
(1460) and his answer to the Academy of Cologne (1463), ready bated the theory of the supremacy of general councils laid down by the Council of Constance.[12]

Pope Paul III (1534–1549), seeing that the Protestant Reformation was no longer confined to a few preachers, simply had won over various princes, peculiarly in Frg, to its ideas, desired a council. Nevertheless when he proposed the idea to his cardinals, it was virtually unanimously opposed. Withal, he sent nuncios throughout Europe to advise the idea. Paul III issued a decree for a general council to be held in Mantua, Italy, to brainstorm on 23 May 1537.[13]
Martin Luther wrote the Smalcald Articles in preparation for the general council. The Smalcald Manufactures were designed to sharply define where the Lutherans could and could not compromise. The quango was ordered by the Emperor and Pope Paul III to convene in Mantua on 23 May 1537. It failed to convene after another war bankrupt out between France and Charles V, resulting in a non-attendance of French prelates. Protestants refused to attend too. Financial difficulties in Mantua led the Pope in the fall of 1537 to motion the council to Vicenza, where participation was poor. The Council was postponed indefinitely on 21 May 1539. Pope Paul III then initiated several internal Church reforms while Emperor Charles V convened with Protestants and Primal Gasparo Contarini at the Diet of Regensburg, to reconcile differences. Mediating and conciliatory formulations were developed on certain topics. In item, a two-part doctrine of justification was formulated that would later be rejected at Trent.[14]
Unity failed between Catholic and Protestant representatives “because of different concepts of

However, the council was delayed until 1545 and, as it happened, convened correct before Luther’s expiry. Unable, however, to resist the urging of Charles 5, the pope, subsequently proposing Mantua every bit the place of meeting, convened the quango at Trent (at that time ruled by a prince-bishop under the Holy Roman Empire),[12]
on xiii December 1545; the Pope’south decision to transfer it to Bologna in March 1547 on the pretext of avoiding a plague[2]
failed to accept upshot and the Council was indefinitely prorogued on 17 September 1549. None of the three popes reigning over the elapsing of the council e’er attended, which had been a condition of Charles V. Papal legates were appointed to represent the Papacy.[16]

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Reopened at Trent on ane May 1551 by the convocation of Pope Julius 3 (1550–1555), it was broken up past the sudden victory of Maurice, Elector of Saxony over Emperor Charles 5 and his march into surrounding state of Tirol on 28 April 1552.[17]
At that place was no hope of reassembling the quango while the very anti-Protestant Paul Four was Pope.[two]
The council was reconvened past Pope Pius Four (1559–1565) for the concluding time, meeting from 18 January 1562 at Santa Maria Maggiore, and continued until its final banishment on iv Dec 1563. Information technology closed with a series of ritual acclamations honouring the reigning Pope, the Popes who had convoked the Council, the emperor and the kings who had supported it, the papal legates, the cardinals, the ambassadors present, and the bishops, followed by acclamations of acceptance of the faith of the Council and its decrees, and of anathema for all heretics.[eighteen]

The history of the council is thus divided into three singled-out periods: 1545–1549, 1551–1552 and 1562–1563. During the 2nd period, the Protestants present asked for a renewed discussion on points already defined and for bishops to be released from their oaths of fidelity to the Pope. When the last catamenia began, all intentions of conciliating the Protestants was gone and the Jesuits had become a strong forcefulness.[2]
This terminal catamenia was begun peculiarly equally an attempt to prevent the formation of a general council including Protestants, as had been demanded by some in France.

The number of attention members in the three periods varied considerably.[12]
The council was pocket-size to begin with, opening with only almost xxx bishops.[xix]
It increased toward the close, only never reached the number of the Kickoff Quango of Nicaea (which had 318 members)[12]
nor of the First Vatican Council (which numbered 744). The decrees were signed in 1563 past 255 members, the highest attendance of the whole council,[xix]
including 4 papal legates, ii cardinals, iii patriarchs, twenty-v archbishops, and 168 bishops, two-thirds of whom were Italians. The Italian and Spanish prelates were vastly preponderant in power and numbers. At the passage of the most important decrees, not more than 60 prelates were present.[12]
Although nigh Protestants did not attend, ambassadors and theologians of Brandenburg, Württemberg, and Strasbourg attended having been granted an improved safety conduct[20]

The French monarchy boycotted the entire council until the last minute when a delegation led past Charles de Guise, Central of Lorraine finally arrived in November 1562. The starting time outbreak of the French Wars of Religion had occurred earlier in the year and the French Church, facing a significant and powerful Protestant minority in France, experienced iconoclasm violence regarding the use of sacred images. Such concerns were not main in the Italian and Castilian Churches.[
clarification needed

The terminal-minute inclusion of a decree on sacred images was a French initiative, and the text, never discussed on the floor of the council or referred to council theologians, was based on a French draft.[21]

Objectives and overall results


The main objectives of the council were twofold, although there were other issues that were also discussed:

  1. To condemn the principles and doctrines of Protestantism and to clarify the doctrines of the Catholic Church on all disputed points. This had not been washed formally since the 1530
    Confutatio Augustana. It is true that the emperor intended it to exist a strictly general or truly ecumenical council, at which the Protestants should have a fair hearing. He secured, during the quango’s second period, 1551–1553, an invitation, twice given, to the Protestants to be present and the council issued a letter of the alphabet of prophylactic conduct (thirteenth session) and offered them the correct of word, but denied them a vote. Melanchthon and Johannes Brenz, with another German Lutherans, actually started in 1552 on the journey to Trent. Brenz offered a confession and Melanchthon, who got no farther than Nuremberg, took with him the
    Confessio Saxonica. But the refusal to requite the Protestants the vote and the consternation produced by the success of Maurice in his entrada against Charles V in 1552 around put an end to Protestant cooperation.[12]
  2. To effect a reformation in discipline or administration. This object had been one of the causes calling forth the reformatory councils and had been lightly touched upon by the 5th Council of the Lateran under Pope Julius Ii. The obvious corruption in the administration of the Church was i of the numerous causes of the Reformation. 20-five public sessions were held, but nearly half of them were spent in solemn formalities. The main work was done in committees or congregations. The entire direction was in the easily of the papal legate. The liberal elements lost out in the debates and voting. The council abolished some of the near notorious abuses and introduced or recommended disciplinary reforms affecting the sale of indulgences, the morals of convents, the instruction of the clergy, the not-residence of bishops (likewise bishops having plurality of benefices, which was fairly common), and the careless fulmination of censures, and forbade duelling. Although evangelical sentiments were uttered by some of the members in favour of the supreme authority of the Scriptures and justification by faith, no concession whatsoever was made to Protestantism.[12]
  3. The Church building is the ultimate interpreter of Scripture.[22]
    As well, the Bible and church building tradition (the tradition that composed function of the Catholic faith) were as and independently authoritative.
  4. The relationship of organized religion and works in salvation was defined, following controversy over Martin Luther’s doctrine of “justification by faith lonely”.
  5. Other Cosmic practices that drew the ire of reformers within the Church, such as indulgences, pilgrimages, the veneration of saints and relics, and the veneration of the Virgin Mary were strongly reaffirmed, though abuses of them were forbidden. Decrees apropos sacred music and religious art, though inexplicit, were subsequently amplified by theologians and writers to condemn many types of Renaissance and medieval styles and iconographies, impacting heavily on the development of these art forms.

The doctrinal decisions of the council are set forth in decrees (decreta), which are divided into chapters (capita), which contain the positive statement of the conciliar dogmas, and into short canons (canones), which condemn the dissenting Protestant views with the concluding
anathema sit down
(“let him exist abomination”).[12]



WAF im Landesmuseum Zürich 64.jpg

The doctrinal acts are as follows: after reaffirming the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed (third session), the decree was passed (fourth session) confirming that the deuterocanonical books were on a par with the other books of the catechism (against Luther’s placement of these books in the Apocrypha of his edition) and coordinating church tradition with the Scriptures equally a dominion of faith. The Vulgate translation was affirmed to be authoritative for the text of Scripture.[12]

Justification (sixth session) was declared to be offered upon the basis of human cooperation with divine grace[12]
as opposed to the Protestant doctrine of passive reception of grace. Understanding the Protestant “faith alone” doctrine to be one of uncomplicated human conviction in Divine Mercy, the Quango rejected the “vain confidence” of the Protestants, stating that no one can know who has received the grace of God. Furthermore, the Council affirmed—against some Protestants—that the grace of God can be forfeited through mortal sin.

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The greatest weight in the Council’s decrees is given to the sacraments. The seven sacraments were reaffirmed and the Eucharist pronounced to be a true propitiatory sacrifice likewise every bit a sacrament, in which the bread and wine were consecrated into the Eucharist (thirteenth and twenty-2nd sessions). The term transubstantiation was used past the Council, but the specific Aristotelian explanation given past Scholasticism was not cited every bit dogmatic. Instead, the prescript states that Christ is “really, truly, essentially present” in the consecrated forms. The sacrifice of the Mass was to be offered for dead and living alike and in giving to the apostles the command “do this in remembrance of me,” Christ conferred upon them a sacerdotal power. The do of withholding the cup from the laity was confirmed (xx-first session) every bit one which the Church Fathers had commanded for good and sufficient reasons; even so in certain cases the Pope was made the supreme czar as to whether the rule should be strictly maintained.[12]
On the linguistic communication of the Mass, “reverse to what is frequently said”, the council condemned the belief that but vernacular languages should be used, while insisting on the use of Latin.[23]

Ordination (20-3rd session) was defined to imprint an indelible graphic symbol on the soul. The priesthood of the New Testament takes the identify of the Levitical priesthood. To the performance of its functions, the consent of the people is non necessary.[12]

In the decrees on marriage (20-4th session) the excellence of the celibate state was reaffirmed, concubinage condemned and the validity of marriage fabricated dependent upon the nuptials taking place before a priest and two witnesses, although the lack of a requirement for parental consent ended a contend that had proceeded from the twelfth century. In the instance of a divorce, the right of the innocent political party to ally once again was denied and so long as the other party was alive,[12]
even if the other party had committed adultery. Still the quango “refused … to assert the necessity or usefulness of clerical celibacy”.[23]


In the twenty-5th and concluding session,[24]
the doctrines of purgatory, the invocation of saints and the veneration of relics were reaffirmed, as was likewise the efficacy of indulgences as dispensed by the Church according to the power given her, but with some cautionary recommendations,[12]
and a ban on the sale of indulgences. Short and rather inexplicit passages concerning religious images, were to take groovy touch on the development of Cosmic Church art. Much more than the 2nd Council of Nicaea (787) the Council fathers of Trent stressed the pedagogical purpose of Christian images.[25]

The council appointed, in 1562 (eighteenth session), a commission to set a list of forbidden books (Alphabetize Librorum Prohibitorum), merely it later left the matter to the Pope. The preparation of a canon and the revision of the Breviary and Missal were also left to the pope.[12]
The catechism embodied the quango’s far-reaching results, including reforms and definitions of the sacraments, the Scriptures, church dogma, and duties of the clergy.[4]

Ratification and promulgation


On adjourning, the Council asked the supreme pontiff to ratify all its decrees and definitions. This petition was complied with by Pope Pius Iv, on 26 January 1564, in the papal balderdash,
Benedictus Deus, which enjoins strict obedience upon all Catholics and forbids, nether pain of ex-communication, all unauthorised interpretation, reserving this to the Pope lone and threatens the disobedient with “the indignation of Almighty God and of his blest apostles, Peter and Paul.” Pope Pius appointed a commission of cardinals to assistance him in interpreting and enforcing the decrees.[12]

Alphabetize Librorum Prohibitorum
was announced in 1564 and the post-obit books were issued with the papal imprimatur: the Profession of the Tridentine Faith and the Tridentine Catechism (1566), the Breviary (1568), the Missal (1570) and the Vulgate (1590 and then 1592).[12]

The decrees of the council were acknowledged in Italia, Portugal, Poland and past the Catholic princes of Germany at the Nutrition of Augsburg in 1566. Philip II of Spain accepted them for Kingdom of spain, holland and Sicily inasmuch as they did non borrow the royal prerogative. In France, they were officially recognised by the male monarch just in their doctrinal parts. Although the disciplinary or moral reformatory decrees were never published by the throne, they received official recognition at provincial synods and were enforced past the bishops. Holy Roman Emperors Ferdinand I and Maximilian II never recognized the existence of any of the decrees.[26]
No attempt was made to innovate it into England. Pius IV sent the decrees to Mary, Queen of Scots, with a letter dated 13 June 1564, requesting her to publish them in Scotland, just she dared not do information technology in the face of John Knox and the Reformation.[12]

These decrees were later supplemented by the Starting time Vatican Council of 1870.

Publication of documents


A comprehensive history is found in Hubert Jedin’s
The History of the Quango of Trent (Geschichte des Konzils von Trient)
with most 2500 pages in four volumes:
The History of the Quango of Trent: The fight for a Council
(Vol I, 1951);
The History of the Council of Trent: The first Sessions in Trent (1545–1547)
(Vol Ii, 1957);
The History of the Council of Trent: Sessions in Bologna 1547–1548 and Trento 1551–1552
(Vol Three, 1970, 1998);
The History of the Council of Trent: Third Menstruum and Conclusion
(Vol IV, 1976).

The canons and decrees of the council have been published very often and in many languages. The showtime issue was by Paulus Manutius (Rome, 1564). Commonly used Latin editions are by Judocus Le Plat (Antwerp, 1779) and past Johann Friedrich von Schulte and Aemilius Ludwig Richter (Leipzig, 1853). Other editions are in vol. seven. of the
Acta et decreta conciliorum recentiorum. Collectio Lacensis
(7 vols., Freiburg, 1870–ninety), reissued equally independent volume (1892);
Concilium Tridentinum: Diariorum, actorum, epistularum, … collectio, ed. Sebastianus Merkle (4 vols., Freiburg, 1901 sqq.); as well every bit Mansi,
Concilia, xxxv. 345 sqq. Note besides Carl Mirbt,
Quellen, second ed, pp. 202–255. An English edition is past James Waterworth (London, 1848;
With Essays on the External and Internal History of the Council).[12]

The original acts and debates of the council, as prepared by its general secretary, Bishop Angelo Massarelli, in six big folio volumes, are deposited in the Vatican Library and remained there unpublished for more 300 years and were brought to low-cal, though only in part, by Augustin Theiner, priest of the oratory (d. 1874), in
Acta genuina sancti et oecumenici Concilii Tridentini nunc primum integre edita
(ii vols., Leipzig, 1874).[12]

Most of the official documents and private reports, however, which touch the council, were made known in the 16th century and since. The most complete drove of them is that of J. Le Plat,
Monumentorum advertisement historicam Concilii Tridentini collectio
(7 vols., Leuven, 1781–87). New materials(Vienna, 1872); past JJI von Döllinger
(Ungedruckte Berichte und Tagebücher zur Geschichte des Concilii von Trient)
(2 parts, Nördlingen, 1876); and August von Druffel,
Monumenta Tridentina
(Munich, 1884–97).[12]

Listing of doctrinal decrees


Decree Session Engagement Canons Chapters
The Holy Scriptures 4 8 April 1546 none 1
Original sin v 7 June 1546 5 4
Justification half-dozen 13 Jan 1547 33 16
Sacraments 7 3 March 1547 13 one
Baptism seven three March 1547 14 none
Confirmation 7 4 March 1547 three none
Holy Eucharist 13 11 October 1551 11 8
Penance xiv xv Nov 1551 15 fifteen
Extreme Unction fourteen four November 1551 4 iii
Matrimony 24 11 November 1563 12 ten
  • Cults
  • Saints
  • Relics
  • Images
25 4 December 1563 none iii
Indulgences 25 four December 1563 none 1
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Protestant response


Out of 87 books written betwixt 1546 and 1564 attacking the Quango of Trent, 41 were written by Pier Paolo Vergerio, a former papal nuncio turned Protestant Reformer.[27]
The 1565–73
Examen decretorum Concilii Tridentini
(Test of the Council of Trent) by Martin Chemnitz was the main Lutheran response to the Council of Trent.[29]
Making extensive use of scripture and patristic sources, it was presented in response to a polemical writing which Diogo de Payva de Andrada had directed against Chemnitz.[xxx]
had four parts: Book I examined sacred scripture,[31]
free volition, original sin, justification, and proficient works. Volume 2 examined the sacraments,[32]
including baptism, confirmation, the sacrament of the eucharist,[33]
communion nether both kinds, the mass, penance, extreme unction, holy orders, and matrimony. Book 3 examined virginity, celibacy, purgatory, and the invocation of saints.[34]
Volume Four examined the relics of the saints, images, indulgences, fasting, the distinction of foods, and festivals.[35]

In response, Andrada wrote the five-part
Defensio Tridentinæ fidei,[36]
which was published posthumously in 1578. However, the
did not circulate as extensively equally the
Examen, nor were any full translations ever published. A French translation of the
by Eduard Preuss was published in 1861. German translations were published in 1861, 1884, and 1972. In English, a complete translation by Fred Kramer drawing from the original Latin and the 1861 German language was published first in 1971.

Encounter also


  • Nicolas Psaume, bishop of Verdun
  • Black Legend (Spain)
  • Popery



  1. ^

    Joseph Francis Kelly,
    The Ecumenical Councils of the Cosmic Church: A History, (Liturgical Press, 2009), 126-148.
  2. ^





    due east

    “Trent, Council of” in Cantankerous, F. L. (ed.)
    The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church building, Oxford Academy Press, 2005 (ISBN 978-0-19-280290-3).

  3. ^

    Quoted in Responses to Some Questions Regarding Certain Aspects of the Doctrine on the Church Archived August 13, 2013, at the Wayback Motorcar
  4. ^



    Wetterau, Bruce.
    Globe History. New York: Henry Holt and Visitor, 1994.

  5. ^

    Hubert Jedin,
    Konciliengeschichte, Verlag Herder, Freiburg, [p.?] 138.

  6. ^

    Jedin, Hubert (1959),
    Konziliengeschichte, Herder, p. fourscore

  7. ^

    An den Adel deutscher Nation
    (in German), 1520

  8. ^



    Jedin 81
  9. ^



    “Clemente Vii”.
    (in Italian). Retrieved
    12 July
    Ma l’ostilità del papa alla convocazione di un concilio era grandissima due east già allora ben conosciuta, tanto che fifty’ambasciatore di Carlo V, il duca di Sessa, non ebbe il coraggio di affrontare direttamente l’argomento. Concorrevano ad alimentare tale ostilità da un lato le ombre ancora vicine del conciliarismo due east l’esperienza del contrasto coi “gallicani”, dall’altro il timore che il concilio potesse trovare nella sua nascita illegittima un buon pretesto per deporlo (ancora durante il conclave di Adriano VI, Soderini lo aveva trattato pubblicamente da bastardo).

  10. ^

    Hans Kühner Papstgeschichte, Fischer, Frankfurt 1960, 118

  11. ^

    Jedin 79–82
  12. ^






















    Public Domain One or more than of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain:Jackson, Samuel Macauley, ed. (1914). “Trent, Council of”.
    New Schaff–Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge
    (third ed.). London and New York: Funk and Wagnalls.

  13. ^

    Joseph Francis Kelly,
    The Ecumenical Councils of the Catholic Church building: A History, 133.

  14. ^

    Catholic OR Protestant? The Story of Contarini and the Reformation, footnote vii

  15. ^

    Jedin 85

  16. ^

    O’Malley, 29–30

  17. ^

    Trenkle, Franz Sales (3 March 2003). “Council of Trent”. Retrieved
    22 January

  18. ^


  19. ^



    O’Malley, 29

  20. ^

    Trent, Council of from the Christian Cyclopedia, Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson. Concordia Publishing House: 2000

  21. ^

    O’Malley, 32–36

  22. ^

    Catechism of the Cosmic Church Paragraph 85
  23. ^



    O’Malley, 31

  24. ^

    Council of Trent: Decree
    De invocatione, veneratione et reliquiis sanctorum, et de sacris imaginibus, 3 December 1563, Sessio 25.

  25. ^

    Bühren 2008, p. 635f.; about the historical context of the decree on sacred images cf. Jedin 1935.

  26. ^

    Meyer, Herbert T. (1962).
    The Story of the Quango of Trent. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House. pp. 19–20.

  27. ^

    Lutheran Patristic Catholicity By Quentin D. Stewart, 2015

  28. ^

    Examen, Volumes I-2: Book I begins on page 46 of the pdf and Volume Ii begins on folio 311.
    Volumes Three-IV: Book III begins on folio 13 of the pdf and Book IV begins on folio 298. All volumes free on Google Books

  29. ^

    “This monumental work is to this twenty-four hours the classic Protestant answer to Trent.” from page three of Martin Chemnitz on the Doctrine of Justification Archived 2017-04-01 at the Wayback Machine by Jacob A. O. Preus

  30. ^

    Martin Chemnitz’s views on Trent: the genesis and the genius of the Examen Concilii Tridentini by Arthur Carl Piepkorn, 1966

  31. ^

    Chemnitz On The Authority Of The Sacred Scripture (An Test) by Fred Kramer, p. 165-175

  32. ^

    Chemnitz on Rites and Ceremonies by Charles Henrickson, 2000.

  33. ^

    Encounter page 141 and following of Should Lutherans Reserve the Consecrated Elements for the Communion of the Sick? by Roland F. Ziegler

  34. ^

    run across page 82 of Lutheran Patristic Catholicity The Vincentian Canon and the Consensus Patrum in Lutheran Orthodoxy Series: Arbeiten zur Historischen und Systematischen Theologie past Quentin D. Stewart

  35. ^

    See page 9 of The Contribution of Martin Chemnitz to Our Lutheran Heritage By: Mark Hanna, 2004

  36. ^

    Defensio, 716 pages, free on Google Books.



  • Bühren, Ralf van:
    Kunst und Kirche im 20. Jahrhundert. Die Rezeption des Zweiten Vatikanischen Konzils
    (Konziliengeschichte, Reihe B: Untersuchungen), Paderborn 2008, ISBN 978-3-506-76388-iv
  • O’Malley, John W., in
    The Sensuous in the Counter-Reformation Church, Eds: Marcia B. Hall, Tracy E. Cooper, 2013, Cambridge University Printing, ISBN 978-1-107-01323-0, google books
  • James Waterworth (ed.),
    The Canons and Decrees of the Sacred and Oecumenical Quango of Trent

Farther reading


  • Dogmatic canons and decrees : authorized translations of the dogmatic decrees of the Council of Trent, the decree on the Immaculate Conception, the Syllabus of Pope Pius Nine, and the decrees of the Vatican Quango. New York: Devin-Adair Visitor. 22 June 1912. Archived from the original on October 6, 2020.

    of cardinal Farley)
  • Paolo Sarpi,
    Historia del Concilio Tridentino, London: John Bill,1619 (History of the Council of Trent, English translation past Nathaniel Brent, London 1620, 1629 and 1676)
  • Francesco Sforza Pallavicino,
    Istoria del concilio di Trento. In Roma, nella stamperia d’Angelo Bernabò dal Verme erede del Manelfi: per Giovanni Casoni libraro, 1656-7
  • John Due west. O’Malley:
    Trent: What Happened at the Council, Cambridge (Massachusetts), The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2013, ISBN 978-0-674-06697-7
  • Hubert Jedin:
    Entstehung und Tragweite des Trienter Dekrets über dice Bilderverehrung, in: Tübinger Theologische Quartalschrift 116, 1935, pp. 143–88, 404–29
  • Hubert Jedin:
    Geschichte des Konzils von Trient, 4 vol., Freiburg im Breisgau 1949–1975 (A History of the Council of Trent, 2 vol., London 1957 and 1961)
  • Hubert Jedin:
    Konziliengeschichte, Freiburg im Breisgau 1959
  • Mullett, Michael A. “The Council of Trent and the Catholic Reformation”, in his
    The Catholic Reformation
    (London: Routledge, 1999, ISBN 0-415-18915-2, pbk.), p. 29-68.
    N.B.: The writer besides mentions the Council elsewhere in his book.
  • Schroeder, H. J., ed. and trans.
    The Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent: English Translation, trans. [and introduced] by H. J. Schroeder. Rockford, Ill.: TAN Books and Publishers, 1978.
    N.B.: “The original 1941 edition independent [both] the Latin text and the English language translation. This edition contains only the English translation…”; comprises only the Quango’due south dogmatic decrees, excluding the purely disciplinary ones.
  • Mathias Mütel:
    Mit den Kirchenvätern gegen Martin Luther? Die Debatten um Tradition und auctoritas patrum auf dem Konzil von Trient, Paderborn 2017 (= Konziliengeschichte. Reihe B., Untersuchungen)

External links


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  • Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913).
    “Council of Trent”.
    Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.

  • The text of the Council of Trent translated by J. Waterworth, 1848 (also on Intratext)
  • Documents of the Council in latin
  • Nil version of the documents of the Council of Trent

An Agreement Reached by the Council of Trent Was That