Which Kept African Americans From Nominating Candidates for Office

Which Kept African Americans From Nominating Candidates for Office

Frederick Douglass, 1818–1895

For African American presidential candidates in minor parties likewise equally major parties, run into Listing of African-American U.s.a. presidential and vice presidential candidates.

This article is about African-American candidates for President of the United States. The article covers simply candidates from major parties (including one who briefly left one of the major parties to run). On Nov 4, 2008, U.S. Senator Barack Obama (D-IL) was elected president of the The states. He was the commencement African American to win a presidential ballot and the starting time African American to serve every bit president of the United States. He was re-elected as president in 2012.

19th century

[edit]

Frederick Douglass

[edit]

Frederick Douglass was invited to speak at 1888 Republican National Convention. Afterward, during the roll call vote, he received one vote, then was nominally a candidate for the presidency. In those years, the candidates for the position and vice presidency were called past state representatives voting at the nominating convention. Many decisions were fabricated by negotiations of state and party leaders “backside airtight doors.” Douglass was non a serious candidate in contemporary terms.[
citation needed
]

20th century

[edit]

George Edwin Taylor

[edit]

In 1904, George Edwin Taylor was president of the National Negro Democratic League.[1]
Since 1890 conservative white Southern Democrats had been enacting state laws or constitutional changes that effectively disfranchised most Blackness voters and were imposing segregation through “Jim Crow” laws. Northern Democrats seemed unwilling and unable to control the excesses of their Southern parties. The National Negro Democratic League was fractured by the debate over the issue of linking the nation’south currency to silverish as well every bit to gold. Past 1904, Taylor was positioned to abandon the party and agency that he had led as president for two terms. It was not a good time to be a Black Democrat. This was close to the nadir of race relations, when the number of lynchings of blacks in the South was high. In addition, scientific racism was gaining acceptance within the nation’s intellectual and scientific community (see Nadir of race relations).[
citation needed
]

In 1904 the executive commission of the newly formed National Negro Liberty Political party asked “Estimate” Taylor to be their candidate for the office of president of the United States.[2]
That party started in Fiddling Rock, Arkansas in 1897, when it was known as the Ex-Slave Petitioners’ Assembly. It was one of several leagues or assemblies that had formed at the cease of the century to support bills working their way through the The states Congress to grant pensions to former slaves.[three]
These leagues claimed that membership in an association was required to authorize for a pension, if and when Congress passed such a pecker. In 1900, that Assembly reorganized as the National Industrial Council. In 1903 information technology added opposition to lynching, Jim Crow laws, disfranchisement, anti-imperialism, and scientific racism to its agenda, broadening its appeal to Black voters in Northern and Midwestern states. In 1904 the Council moved its headquarters from Arkansas to Chicago, Illinois, and reorganized as the National Negro Civil Liberty Political party. Information technology was following a growing wave of black migrants from the South to northern cities.[4]

The get-go national convention of that new party convened in St. Louis, Missouri in July 1904. Information technology intended to field candidates in states that had sizeable Black populations. Its platform included planks that dealt with disfranchisement, bereft career opportunities for Blacks in the United States military, imperialism, public ownership of railroads, “self-government” for the District of Columbia (Washington, D.C.), lynching, and pensions for ex-slaves. The convention selected “Col.” William Thomas Scott of E St. Louis, Illinois every bit its 1904 candidate for the role of US President and William C. Payne, a little-known instructor from Warrenton, Virginia as his vice-presidential running mate. The 37-yr-old Payne, who later founded an industrial schoolhouse in Puerto Rico, had served as a Cabin Steward on the
USS Dixie
during the Spanish–American War.[5]
[6]
After convention delegates had left St. Louis, Scott was arrested and jailed for having failed to pay a fine imposed in 1901. The party’s executive committee turned to Taylor (who had just resigned as president of the National Negro Autonomous League) to lead the party’due south ticket.[seven]

Taylor’s campaign in 1904 was unsuccessful. The political party was unable to gather 300 speakers to back up his candidacy nor to field half dozen,000 candidates for local offices. No newspaper endorsed this party. Country laws kept the political party from listing candidates officially on election ballots. The party was unable to become Taylor’due south name added to whatever state election. The votes he received were not recorded in state records. William Scott subsequently estimated that the party had received 65,000 votes nationwide, a number that could not be verified.[8]

Channing E. Phillips

[edit]

At the 1968 Democratic National Convention, held in Chicago, Channing E. Phillips, a minister and ceremonious rights leader, was placed in nomination for President of the United States. He received 67.5 votes.[9]

Per Dick Gregory Wiki , “ Gregory ran for President of the United states in 1968 as a write-in candidate of the Freedom and Peace Party, which had broken off from the Peace and Freedom Party.”

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Shirley Chisholm

[edit]

In 1972, Shirley Chisholm, The states Congresswoman from New York, was a candidate for the Autonomous Political party nomination and participated in the Autonomous primaries in numerous states.[10]
She campaigned in 12 states and won 28 delegates.[11]
In the balloting at the 1972 Democratic National Convention, she gained additional votes from disaffected Democrats and concluded with a total of 152 delegates.[10]

Jesse Jackson

[edit]

In the 1984 presidential ballot and 1988 presidential election, Jesse Jackson was the first major-political party blackness candidate to run nationwide primary campaigns and to win private states’ primaries or caucuses. He competed as a Democrat.[12]
In 1984, he garnered effectually 3 meg votes in the primaries and 1988, about 7 meg.[13]

Alan Keyes

[edit]

In 1992, Alan Keyes received a vote for the presidential nomination at the Republican National Convention.[14]
He did not entrada for President (he was the Republican nominee for U.S. Senate in Maryland that twelvemonth). He became the commencement African-American candidate to run in the Republican presidential primaries in 1996, but he did not win whatever state’s primary or caucus.[
citation needed
]

21st century

[edit]

Barack Obama

[edit]

Barack Obama was born to an American mother of European descent (except for at least one African antecedent in the colonial menstruation – Punch) and an African father. His mother, Ann Dunham (1942–1995), was built-in in Wichita, Kansas; she was generally of English descent,[15]
with some High german, Irish, Scottish, Swiss, and Welsh ancestry.[16]
His begetter, Barack Obama Sr. (1936–1982),[17]
was a Luo Kenyan from Nyang’oma Kogelo.[18]
[19]
His parents had met and married in Hawai’i. They separated and divorced when he was a child.

Obama was identified as a potential candidate for president of the U.Southward. after his spoken language at the 2004 Democratic National Convention.[20]
A Democrat, Obama was elected to the U.S. Senate in 2004.[21]
The singled-out possibility of an African American becoming elected was realized as the Democratic main elections got underway in early 2008. Obama emerged as a serious contender for the nomination[22]
and was the first African American to win the designation of a major political party in a United States presidential ballot. Every bit the Autonomous Party’due south nominee, he won the general election on Nov iv, 2008. On January 20, 2009, he was sworn in as the first African-American president of the United States. He was re-elected to a second term as president on November half-dozen, 2012.

Other candidates

[edit]

Alan Keyes ran for president over again in 2000 and in 2008.[
citation needed
]

In 2004, Carol Moseley Braun and Al Sharpton were unsuccessful candidates in the Autonomous primaries.

“Tea Party” Republican Herman Cain staged a run for the presidency in 2012. He received a brief surge of attending and popularity, but withdrew before any primaries were held.[
citation needed
]

Neurosurgeon Ben Carson ran for the Republican nomination in the 2016 election. He polled well for a time in late 2015, merely withdrew subsequently the first Super Tuesday.[
citation needed
]

Carson received 857,039 votes during the Republican primaries; this total represented 2.75% of the votes cast. He was supported by 7 delegates at the Republican National Convention.[23]

In early 2019, U.S. senators Kamala Harris[a]
[24]
[25]
[26]
[27]
[28]
[29]
and Cory Booker declared their presidential campaigns for the 2020 Autonomous nomination within weeks of each other.[
citation needed
]

Both withdrew from the race before any nominating contests were held. On December 3, 2019, Harris ended her presidential campaign, and Booker followed on Jan 13, 2020.[30]
[31]
Meanwhile, old Massachusetts governor Deval Patrick was a late aspirant into the race for the Autonomous presidential nomination.[32]

Affect

[edit]

The results of African-American presidential campaigns had ranged from winning the presidency to dropping out before chief voting began. However, all of the candidates take had a political impact by making certain their voices were a part of the national debate and gaining some attention from their party’due south establishment. Chisholm paved the way for African American and female candidates. Her goal was to make the Democratic Party more responsive to the people. When describing her reasons for running, Chisholm said, “I am not the candidate of black America, although I am black and proud. I am not the candidate of the women’s movement of this country, although I am a woman, and I am equally proud of that…I am the candidate of the people of America.”[33]
In the 1972 master, Chisholm won more than 430,000 votes[34]
in 14 states and 28 delegates at the Democratic Convention in Miami.[35]
Chisholm provided a boost to George McGovern, the eventual Democratic nominee when she campaigned for him after the convention. Chisholm’s candidacy inspired many women and African Americans to make a difference in politics.[34]
As the first African American and woman to run for the nomination of a major party, Chisholm paved the way for Jesse Jackson Sr. who would exist the next major African American candidate to run. For future candidates, Chisholm advised, “the adjacent entrada by a adult female or blackness must exist well prepared, and well-financed; information technology must be planned long in advance, and it must aim at building a new coalition.”[36]

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Jesse Jackson seemed to follow Chisholm’s advice in his 1984 run for president. His 1984 campaign sought to bring together a “Rainbow Coalition” of African Americans, Hispanics, the poor, the elderly, family farmers, and women that would challenge the conservative policies of President Ronald Reagan.[37]
Jackson placed 3rd out of ten candidates for the Democratic nomination with more 3 meg master votes.[38]
He won primaries or caucuses in iv states and the District of Columbia. Jackson’southward campaign fabricated progress by building on Chisholm’due south legacy. His 1984 campaign registered about 2 million voters of all racial backgrounds.[39]
By registering and then many new voters, Jackson expanded the Democratic Political party’s base. He likewise inspired African American voters. Exit polls showed that almost 12% of all Blackness voters were participating for the first time.[39]
Jackson’southward campaign won him a speaking slot at the 1984 Democratic Convention, which provided a national platform for him to present his agenda.[38]
In his 1988 campaign, Jackson increased his support to half-dozen.9 million primary votes and won 9 states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico.[xl]

Sharpton and Moseley Braun followed Jackson’southward campaign when they ran for the Autonomous presidential nomination in 2004. Moseley Braun, having already made history equally the only African American adult female elected to the Us Senate, became the virtually visible female candidate to run for the 2004 Democratic presidential nomination. She advocated for expanding opportunity and encouraged women to seek positions of power. “Now is the time for Democrats to renew hope that nosotros will leave [the American Dream] for the adjacent generation in even meliorate shape than we found it,” Moseley Braun said, “And a adult female can lead the fashion.”[41]
Though Moseley Braun ended her campaign in January 2004, she earned a speaking slot at the Democratic Convention in Boston where she had a national platform to advocate for equal rights.[42]

Sharpton’s 2004 campaign besides focused on equal rights. In describing why he was running, Sharpton said, “ I think if we stand upwardly for workers’ rights, stand for a peace plan worldwide, stand up upward for the ramble rights of every American, those people will come up back [to the Democratic Party], and those people are the majority of Americans.”[43]
Like Moseley Braun, Sharpton’south entrada allowed him to participate in the early nationally televised Autonomous Party master debates, and earned him a speaking slot at the 2004 Democratic Convention, the aforementioned year futurity president Barack Obama gained national attention for his convention speech.

On the Republican side, Keyes first ran for the nomination in 1996 seeking to go his party to focus on social issues such every bit abortion. Keyes garnered a meaning corporeality of free media during this campaign.[44]
[45]
The number of principal votes Keyes received increased from his 1996 campaign (471,716) to his 2000 entrada (914,548) but his vote total decreased in his 2008 principal run (58,977).[46]

African American candidates have a diversity of reasons for running for president. Some candidates run because they retrieve they can win. Others run to influence the national debate past advocating for specific policy proposals. Some run for a combination of these reasons.[47]

See also

[edit]

  • African-American heritage of presidents of the Usa

Notes

[edit]


  1. ^

    Kamala Harris is an American of Jamaican and Tamil Indian descent. Her mother was a Tamil Indian chest-cancer scientist who immigrated to the The states from Madras, India, in 1960. Her father is a black Jamaican who emigrated from Jamaica to the U.South. in 1961.

References

[edit]


  1. ^

    Mouser,
    For Labor, Race, and Liberty, pp. 102-106.

  2. ^


    Ottumwa
    (Iowa)
    Daily Courier, 22 July 1904, p.iv.

  3. ^

    James Davidson, “Encountering the Ex-Slave Reparation Movement from the Grave: The National Industrial Council and National Liberty Party, 1901-1907,”
    The Periodical of African American History
    97 (2012), thirteen-38.

  4. ^


    Atlanta
    (Georgia)
    Constitution, 27 July 1903, p.ix.

  5. ^

    “Others: Third Parties During The Populist Period, by Darcy Richardson, p 381.

  6. ^

    For accounts of the convention, run into
    St. Louis
    (Missouri)
    Palladium, xvi July 1904, p.1;
    Washington Bee, 3 September 1904, p.1.

  7. ^


    Daily Illinois State Register, 14 July 1904;
    St. Louis
    (Missouri)
    Commonwealth, 24 July 1904.

  8. ^


    The Marshfield
    (Wisconsin)
    Times, 19 February 1905, p.3;
    Daily Illinois State Periodical, 29 January 1905, p.1.

  9. ^


    McQuiston, John T. (November 12, 1987). “Channing E. Phillips Dies at 59; Minister and Civil Rights Leader”.
    New York Times.


  10. ^


    a




    b




    “Shirley Chisholm’s 1972 Presidential Entrada”. Archived from the original on 19 January 2009. Retrieved
    2009-01-20
    .
    In July of 1971 Shirley Chisholm, Member of Congress from New York’s 12th Commune, began to explore the possibility of running for President. When she formally appear her candidacy the following Jan 25, she became the first adult female and the starting time African American to seek the nomination of the Autonomous Party for the nation’s highest office.



  11. ^

    House Resolution 97, Recognizing Contributions, Achievements, and Dedicated Work of Shirley Anita Chisholm, [Congressional Record: June 12, 2001 (Firm)] [Folio H3019-H3025] From the Congressional Record Online via GPO Admission [wais.admission.gpo.gov] [DOCID:cr12jn01-85].

  12. ^


    Apple tree, R. W. (April 29, 1988). “Jackson Is Seen as Winning a Solid Place in History”.
    The New York Times. Archived from the original on 13 February 2009. Retrieved
    2009-01-20
    .
    Whether or not he is elected President, whether or not he is even nominated for Vice President, whether or not he wins more primaries, the world is likely to remember 1988 as the Yr of Jackson — the year when, for the start fourth dimension in American history, a blackness made a serious bid for the White House and was taken seriously by the electorate.



  13. ^


    Jr, E. J. Dionne (1988-06-thirteen). “Jackson Share of Votes By Whites Triples in ’88”.
    The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved
    2021-11-17
    .



  14. ^


    “The states President – R Convention Race – Aug 17, 1992”. Our Campaigns. Retrieved
    2020-01-16
    .



  15. ^

    Obama (1995, 2004), p. 12.

  16. ^


    Smolenyak, Megan Smolenyak (Nov–December 2008). “The quest for Obama’south Irish roots”.
    Ancestry.
    26
    (vi): 46–47, 49. ISSN 1075-475X. Retrieved
    Dec twenty,
    2011
    .

    • Smolenyak, Megan (May 9, 2011). “Tracing Barack Obama’due south Roots to Moneygall”.
      HuffPost
      . Retrieved
      May xix,
      2011
      .

    • Rising, David; Noelting, Christoph (June 4, 2009). “Researchers: Obama has German language roots”.
      U.s.a. Today. Associated Press. Retrieved
      May xiii,
      2010
      .

    • Hutton, Brian; Nickerson, Matthew (May 3, 2007). “For certain, Obama’s South Side Irish; 1 of his roots traces back to small hamlet”
      (paid archive).
      Chicago Sun-Times. Press Association of Ireland. p. 3. Retrieved
      November 24,
      2008
      .

    • Jordon, Mary (May 13, 2007). “Tiny Irish gaelic village is latest place to claim Obama as its own”.
      The Washington Post. p. A14. Retrieved
      May xiii,
      2007
      .

    • David Williamson (July five, 2008). “Wales link in United states presidential candidate’due south past”. walesonline.co.uk. Archived from the original on May 21, 2011. Retrieved
      April 30,
      2011
      .


  17. ^


    Kipkemboi, Andrew (June 1, 2008). “Kenyans Enthusiastic About Obama”.
    Baltimore Sun. Archived from the original on February 22, 2020. Retrieved
    Jan 16,
    2020
    .



  18. ^


    Jacobs, Emerge (2011-07-06). “President Obama’southward Father: A ‘Assuming And Reckless Life’“. NPR. Retrieved
    2020-01-16
    .



  19. ^


    David R Arnott. “From Obama’southward old school to his ancestral village, globe reacts to United states presidential election”. Nbcnews.com. Retrieved
    2020-01-xvi
    .



  20. ^

    Zweigenhaft, R.L. and Domhoff, G.West. (2006)
    Variety in the Ability Elite: How it Happened, why information technology Matters.
    Rowman & Littlefield. p 140.

  21. ^


    “America Votes 2004: U.S. Senate / Illinois”. CNN. 2005. Retrieved
    January 16,
    2020
    .



  22. ^

    Parker, J. (June 3, 2008) “Obama Becomes Offset Blackness Autonomous Presidential Nominee: The 3rd African American Senator Since Reconstruction Makes History.” ABC News. Retrieved one/19/09.

  23. ^


    “Republican Convention 2016”.
    www.thegreenpapers.com.



  24. ^


    “The New Face of Politics… An Interview with Kamala Harris”. DesiClub. Archived from the original on December 11, 2010. Retrieved
    February ii,
    2011
    .



  25. ^


    “Obituary: Dr. Shyamala G. Harris”.
    San Francisco Chronicle. March 22, 2009. Retrieved
    June 11,
    2017
    .



  26. ^


    “PM Golding congratulates Kamala Harris-daughter of Jamaican – on appointment as California’s Start Woman Attorney General”. Jamaican Information Service. December ii, 2010. Archived from the original on January 15, 2012. Retrieved
    Feb 2,
    2011
    .



  27. ^


    “California Attorney General Kamala Harris marries Douglas Emhoff”.
    The American Bazaar. September 2, 2014.



  28. ^


    Bazelon, Emily (May 25, 2016). “Kamala Harris, a ‘Top Cop’ in the era of Black Lives Matter”.
    The New York Times Magazine.



  29. ^


    Eliza Relman (2019-06-28). “Donald Trump Jr. shared a racist tweet about Kamala Harris”. Business organisation Insider. Retrieved
    2020-01-16
    .



  30. ^


    Herndon, Astead; Goldmacher, Shane (December three, 2019). “Kamala Harris Is Dropping Out of 2020 Race”.
    The New York Times
    . Retrieved
    December 3,
    2019

    – via NYTimes.com.



  31. ^


    Buck, Rebecca (Jan 13, 2020). “Cory Booker ends 2020 presidential campaign”. CNN. Retrieved
    January thirteen,
    2020
    .



  32. ^


    Stevens, Matt (November xiv, 2019). “Deval Patrick Joins the 2020 Race: ‘This Won’t Be Easy, and It Shouldn’t Exist’“.
    The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved
    Nov xv,
    2019
    .



  33. ^

    Gutgold, Nichola D. Paving the Mode for Madam President, Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2006. Page 52. Impress.
  34. ^


    a




    b



    Glasrud, Bruce A and Cary D. Wintz. African Americans and the Presidency: The Road to the White House. New York: Routledge, 2010. Page x. Impress.

  35. ^

    Gutgold, Nichola D. Paving the Way for Madam President, Lanham, Medico: Lexington Books, 2006. Page 65. Print.

  36. ^

    Glasrud, Bruce A and Cary D. Wintz. African Americans and the Presidency: The Route to the White House. New York: Routledge, 2010. Page 74. Print.

  37. ^

    Glasrud, Bruce A and Cary D. Wintz. African Americans and the Presidency: The Route to the White Firm. New York: Routledge, 2010. Page 119. Print.
  38. ^


    a




    b



    Glasrud, Bruce A and Cary D. Wintz. African Americans and the Presidency: The Road to the White House. New York: Routledge, 2010. Page 120. Impress.
  39. ^


    a




    b



    Walters, Ronald W. Freedom Is Not Plenty. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, Inc., 2005. Page 28. Print.

  40. ^

    Glasrud, Bruce A and Cary D. Wintz. African Americans and the Presidency: The Road to the White House. New York: Routledge, 2010. Page 121. Print.

  41. ^

    Gutgold, Nichola D. Paving the Way for Madam President, Lanham, Doc: Lexington Books, 2006. Folio 157. Print.

  42. ^

    Gutgold, Nichola D. Paving the Way for Madam President, Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2006. Page 156. Print.

  43. ^

    Walters, Ronald W. Freedom Is Not Enough. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, Inc., 2005. Page 139. Print.

  44. ^


    “White House 2000 – The Republicans”.
    Washingtonpost.com. 1998-01-24. Retrieved
    2020-01-16
    .



  45. ^

    Connolly, Ceci. “The Republicans.” Washington Post 1998. Online

  46. ^

    Glasrud, Bruce A and Cary D. Wintz. African Americans and the Presidency: The Road to the White Business firm. New York: Routledge, 2010. Page 174. Impress.

  47. ^

    Glasrud, Bruce A and Cary D. Wintz. African Americans and the Presidency: The Route to the White House. New York: Routledge, 2010. Folio 9. Print.



Which Kept African Americans From Nominating Candidates for Office

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African-American_candidates_for_President_of_the_United_States

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