Why Was Saudi Arabia Fearful of Iraq in 1990

Why Was Saudi Arabia Fearful of Iraq in 1990

Bilateral relations

Republic of iraq – Saudi Arabia relations


Saudi Arabia

Republic of iraq–Saudi relations
are the bilateral and diplomatic relations between the Democracy of Iraq and the Kingdom of Kingdom of saudi arabia.

Nether Saddam Hussein, relations were manageable, peculiarly after the Iran–Iraq War began in 1980. These manageable relations were before long quelled at the Gulf War, when Saddam’s Iraq invaded Kuwait, leading to international sanctions on Iraq and a significant deterioration in Iraqi–Saudi relations. In 1990, the country borders between the ii countries airtight due to the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait.[1]
Saudi Arabia cut ties with Republic of iraq following the invasion, and reestablished relations with Iraq in 2015 later on 25 years of isolating the country.[2]

In 2014, subsequently ISIL invaded Iraq, King Abdullah tried to revive relations between Iraq and Saudi arabia by setting up an embassy at that place for the showtime time since the Gulf State of war. King Abdullah too attempted to increase Iraqi–Saudi relations by supporting the coalition in the fight against ISIS in Republic of iraq.

Nowadays relations have improved greatly and both countries take emphasized the close historical, religious, ethnic, tribal, linguistic, cultural and geographic ties as well as the promising potential for continuous future cooperation and the need of upholding the current cordial relations between the Saudi Arabian government and the Iraqi regime.[3]

In 2019, Saudi Arabia opened its consulate in Baghdad. Moreover, xiii agreements were signed between the ii countries.[6]
Saudi Arabia has as well donated $500M to support exports of Iraq and $267M to support evolution projects.[7]

Both sovereign states share the Iraq–Saudi Arabia border.



Since the early 1790s, the Sharif of Mecca had sought to contain Saudi expansion; he corresponded with the Mamluks of Iraq and turned them hostile against the Saudis past portraying them as disbelievers. In 1797, Sulayman Pasha, the Mamluk governor of Iraq, promptly invaded Diriyah with around 15,000 troops in co-ordination with the Sharif of Mecca and laid a one-month siege to Al-Ahsa. Still, re-inforcements led past Saud ibn ‘Abd al-Azeez would force the coalition to retreat. Afterward three days of skirmish, Sulayman Pasha and the Saudis came to a peace settlement which was to terminal for years.

The peace would exist broken in 1801, when a caravan of pilgrims protected by a Saudi convoy was plundered virtually Hail; upon orders from the government in Baghdad. This attack would completely break down the already deteriorating Saudi-Iraqi diplomatic relations, and the Emirate of Diriyah sent a large-scale expedition towards Iraq. In 1801-1802, the Saudis sacked Karbala, killing thousands of inhabitants. The bump-off in Nov 1803 of Saudi Emir ‘Abd al-‘Aziz during prayers in Diriyah by an Iraqi was suspected of being orchestrated by the Mamluk governor of Baghdad, further contributing to the negative Saudi perception of Republic of iraq. Republic of iraq was able to repel boosted Saudi attacks on Najaf and Hillah in 1803 and 1806, but there remained no challenge to their domination of the desert.

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At the cosmos of the Sykes–Picot Agreement, the Hashemites ruled the kingdoms of Hijaz, Transjordan and Iraq. Once Ibn Saud established dominance in central Arabian Najd, he then proceeded to dominate much of the Arabian Peninsula and, with the help of the highly conservative Ikhwan, even conquered the Hashemite Kingdom of Hijaz in 1925. This was the beginning of a struggle between the ruling Hashemite family in Iraq and Jordan and the Saudis.

In 1958, no longer would the Hashemites rule Iraq. Instead, Republic of iraq fell under anti-Purple Arab nationalism, led by Brigadier Full general Abd al-Karim Qasim. With strong socialist elements, Iraq was seen to movement towards the Soviet Union as Saudi Arabia was quietly moving towards the United states. In 1979 Saddam Hussein took command of Republic of iraq and, due to the Iranian revolution in the same year, relations improved betwixt Iraq and Kingdom of saudi arabia.[
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Throughout the 1960s and into the early 1970s, Riyadh suspected Baghdad of supporting political movements hostile to Saudi interests, not only in the Arabian Peninsula but also in other Middle Eastern countries. Saudi–Iraqi ties consequently were strained; the kingdom tried to contain the spread of Arab Nationalism from Iraq by strengthening its relations with states such as Islamic republic of iran, State of kuwait, Syria and the United States, all of which shared its distrust of Baghdad.[
citation needed

Beginning in late 1974, however, Iraq began to moderate its foreign policies, a alter that significantly lessened tensions between Riyadh and Baghdad. It began at the Rabat Arab summit in October 1974, where Jordan invited Iraq to listen to proposals for how it could resolve differences with Iran, Egypt, and the Saudis. Iraq agreed.[viii]
Iraq responded with a “charm offensive” that resulted in amend relations:

“Loftier-level Iraqi officials, including Vice President Saddam Hussein and President Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr, visited the Kingdom, and ranking Saudis, similar Crown Prince Fahd, paid return visits to Baghdad. Iraq concluded propaganda efforts critical of the Saudi rulers and suspended covert activities in the Kingdom. In June 1975, the two states settled lingering border problems, agreeing to divide equally the diamond shaped ‘neutral zone’ carved out by the British in the 1920s.”[eight]

Saudi arabia’s diplomatic relations with Iraq were relatively cordial by the time the Iranian Revolution climaxed in 1979.[
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The Saudis and Iraqis felt threatened by the Iranians’ announcements that they would export Islamic revolution, and this shared fear fostered an unprecedented caste of cooperation between both countries. Although Riyadh declared its neutrality at the first of the Iran–Iraq War in 1980, information technology helped Baghdad in non-military machine means. For example, during the eight year disharmonize, Saudi Arabia provided Republic of iraq with an estimated US $25 billion in low-interest loans and grants, reserved part of its production from oil fields in the Iraq–Saudi Arabian Neutral Zone for Iraqi customers, and also assisted with the structure of an oil pipeline to transport Iraqi oil across its territory. Despite its considerable financial investments in creating a political alliance with Iraq, Saddam Hussein continued to press claims confronting Kuwait.[
citation needed

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In August 1990, merely two years after Baghdad and Tehran had agreed to end hostilities, Iraqi forces invaded and occupied Kuwait. Kingdom of saudi arabia took action against Iraq, claiming Iraq’s actions posed a serious threat to its security, and requested the United states of america and 32 other countries to bring troops into the kingdom. Riyadh’s fears concerning Baghdad’south ultimate intentions prompted Saudi arabia to become involved directly in the war against Republic of iraq during January and Feb 1991. The kingdom’south air bases served as the main staging areas for aerial strikes against Iraqi targets, and for personnel of the Saudi Army who participated in both the bombing assaults and the basis offensive. Republic of iraq responded by firing several Scud-B missiles at Riyadh and other Saudi towns. This disharmonize marked the first time since its invasion of Republic of yemen in 1934 that Kingdom of saudi arabia had fought against another Arab state.[
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Saudi and Coalition forces as well repelled Iraqi forces when they breached the Kuwaiti-Saudi border in 1991 ( see Battle of Khafji).[9]

Consequently, postwar Saudi policy focused on means to comprise potential Iraqi threats to the kingdom and the region. One elements of Riyadh’s containment policy included support for Iraqi opposition forces that advocated the overthrow of Saddam Hussein’s government. In the past, backing for such groups had been discreet, but in early 1992 the Saudi’southward invited several Iraqi opposition leaders to Riyadh to attend a well-publicized conference. To further demonstrate Saudi dissatisfaction with the regime in Baghdad, Crown Prince Abdallah permitted the media to videotape his meeting with some of the opponents of Saddam Hussein.[
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In spite of this, the Saudi leadership opposed the U.Southward. plan to invade Iraq in 2003 and did non join the Coalition. Their fears and warnings that Republic of iraq would fracture along sectarian and political lines proved accurate.[
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What was worse for Saudi arabia was the strengthening of the Shi’ites in Iraq, seen equally Iran’s proxy. This drew the Iranian threat much larger for the Kingdom. Iraq has as a result of being now ruled by Shi’ites, ever chosen Iran over Kingdom of saudi arabia as their closer marry.

In 2009, Republic of iraq named Ghanim Al-Jumaily its first post-Gulf War ambassador to Saudi Arabia. In January 2012, Iraqi foreign government minister Hoshyar Zebari stated that Saudi arabia had named its first ambassador to Republic of iraq since 1990.[10]
Fahd Abdul Mohsen Al-Zaid, the Kingdom’south ambassador to Hashemite kingdom of jordan, would serve every bit not-resident ambassador flying regularly from Amman to Baghdad.[eleven]

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In 2014, former Prime Minister of Iraq Nouri al-Maliki stated that Kingdom of saudi arabia and Qatar started the civil wars in Iraq and Syrian arab republic, and incited and encouraged terrorist movements, like ISIS and al-Qaeda, supporting them politically and in the media, with coin and past buying weapons for them. Saudi arabia denied the accusations which were criticised past the country, the Carnegie Middle Eastward Centre and the Purple United Services Plant.[12]

On February 25, 2017, Saudi strange minister Adel al-Jubeir visited Iraq – the starting time such visit past a Saudi strange government minister since 1990.[14]

In August 2017, it was reported that the border crossing betwixt Iraq and Kingdom of saudi arabia would exist reopened. This would exist the first time the edge was open up later approximately 27 years.[fifteen]

On March 25, 2021, Saudi arabia and Iraq held talks through a video call discussing the relations between the 2 countries and stressing on the importance of boosting the cooperation on regional and international problems.[sixteen]

See also


  • Foreign relations of Republic of iraq
  • Strange relations of Saudi Arabia
  • Iraqis in Saudi Arabia
  • Saudi Arabia–United States relations
  • Shia–Sunni relations



  1. ^

    “Saudi arabia says Arar border crossing with Republic of iraq to reopen in October”.
    Arab News. 2019-07-xvi. Retrieved

  2. ^

    “Why is Saudi Arabia finally engaging with Iraq?”.
    Brookings. 2020-12-04. Retrieved

  3. ^

    Will Iraq Realign Toward Saudi Arabia in 2018? – Off-white Observer

    Fair Observer

    17 January 2018

  4. ^

    A New Era Beckons For Iraqi-Saudi Relations

    War On The Rocks

    2 Feb 2018

  5. ^

    Republic of iraq neat to maintain strong relations with Saudi arabia
    Middle East Monitor
    ii April 2018

  6. ^

    “Saudi Arabia Opens Consulate in Baghdad”.
    Asharq AL-awsat
    . Retrieved

  7. ^

    “Saudi investment shows Iraqis they are not alone”.
    Arab News. 2019-04-28. Retrieved

  8. ^



    F. Gregory Gause, Iii (2009-11-19).
    The International Relations of the Persian Gulf. Cambridge University Printing. p. 37. ISBN978-i-107-46916-7
    . Retrieved
    26 December

  9. ^

    Article championship Archived 2020-01-28 at the Wayback Motorcar[
    blank URL PDF

  10. ^

    Kingdom of saudi arabia names new envoy to Iraq as Baghdad seeks inclusive Arab League meridian
    dead link

    The Washington Post
    21 February 2012

  11. ^

    Kingdom appoints ambassador to Republic of iraq Archived 2012-02-24 at the Wayback Car
    Arab News

  12. ^

    “Iraqi PM Maliki says Saudi, Qatar openly funding violence in Anbar”. Reuters. March ix, 2014. Retrieved
    10 June

  13. ^

    Black, Ian (19 June 2014). “Kingdom of saudi arabia rejects Iraqi accusations of Isis support”.
    The Guardian
    . Retrieved
    10 June

  14. ^

    “Saudi strange minister makes landmark visit to Iraq”.
    BBC News. 25 February 2017.

  15. ^

    “Saudi-Iraqi border crossing reopens afterward 27 years”.
    Shiite News
    . Retrieved
    18 August

  16. ^

    “Saudi Arabia’due south King Salman holds talks with Iraqi PM Mustafa Al-Kadhimi”.
    Arab News. 2021-03-25. Retrieved

  • History of Saudi arabia’south relations with Republic of iraq

Why Was Saudi Arabia Fearful of Iraq in 1990

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iraq%E2%80%93Saudi_Arabia_relations