# Which Element is Found in Both Dna and Protein

Which Element is Found in Both Dna and Protein

## 3.vi: Nucleic Acids

Learning objectiveS

• Describe the general chemical structure of nucleic acids, place monomers and polymers, and list the functions of RNA and Deoxyribonucleic acid
• Describe the structure and role of ATP in the prison cell

Nucleic acids
contain the same elements as proteins: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen; plus phosphorous (C, H, O, N, and P).
Nucleic acids
are very large macromolecules equanimous of repetitive units of the same building blocks,
nucleotides, similar to a pearl necklace fabricated of many pearls. We tin can likewise define nucleic acids as
polymers
assembled from many smaller covalently bonded
monomers.

Nucleic acids are the molecules that function in encoding, transmitting and expressing genetic information in our cells.

All
nucleotides
are made of three subunits: one or more phosphate groups, a pentose saccharide (five-carbon sugar, either deoxyribose or ribose), and a nitrogen-containing base of operations (either adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine, or uracil). See figure $$\PageIndex{1}$$ beneath.

Figure $$\PageIndex{1}$$
A nucleic acid short fragment fabricated of v nucleotides is shown on the right; i nucleotide is enclosed in a red rectangle. Each nucleotide is made of one of the v nitrogenous bases, a pentose sugar (ribose
or
deoxyribose) and a phosphate group. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) has ribose for a pentose, whereas deoxyribonucleic acid (Deoxyribonucleic acid) has deoxyribose. The five nitrogenous bases are classified as
pyrimidines
(cytosine, thymine, and uracil), which have a band construction; and
purines
(adenine and guanine), which accept a double-ring structure. RNA molecules may have up to few-chiliad nucleotides and are singlestranded, whereas Deoxyribonucleic acid molecules take billions of nucleotides organized in two strings of nucleotides forming a helix. DNA, RNA, and proteins are related to each other every bit shown in table $$\PageIndex{1}$$ below.

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 Deoxyribonucleic acid $$\rightarrow$$ is used to synthesize RNA $$\rightarrow$$ which is used to synthesize Proteins Polymers of nucleotides Polymer of nucleotides Polymer of amino acids Encodes amino acid sequence of proteins Transmits and expresses information in Deoxyribonucleic acid Perform most cellular functions

Figure $$\PageIndex{two}$$
DNA and RNA share three nucleotides in their limerick (cytosine, guanine, and adenine), and they differ in uracil (found only in RNA) and thymine (found but in Dna). RNA is single strand, whereas Dna in double strand

Tabular array $$\PageIndex{two}$$ Types of nucleic acids and their functions
Blazon of Nucleic Acid Function
Dna Encodes and transmits inherited genetic data from ane generation to the next
RNA Translates the information encoded in Dna for the product of proteins and help in their synthesis

Concepts, terms, and facts bank check

Study Questions

one. What is a nucleic acid?
two. What elements are nucleic acids made of?
three. What are the monomers that make the edifice blocks of nucleic acids?
4. What are the 3 components of a nucleotide?
5. List the types of nucleic acids described in the module
half-dozen. What are the functions of nucleic acrid listed in the module?

Nucleotides are the monomers that make up the nucleic acid polymers. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a nucleotide that has an important office by itself. ATP is a direct and rapid free energy source for most cellular activities. ATP consists of a unmarried adenosine (the nitrogen-containing base adenine and the sugar ribose), linked to three phosphate ions.

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Effigy $$\PageIndex{3}$$
The 2 covalent bonds on the right of the molecule (shown in red) are high energy bonds. When an enzymatic reaction breaks them down, a large amount of energy is released. This energy is gear up to be used by a cell. On the other paw, when molecules (like the ones we incorporate in our nutrition) are cleaved down by enzymes they release energy. This energy can be temporarily held on ATP molecules in the covalent bonds formed between free phosphate groups and adenosine diphosphate (ADP)

ATP is regularly referred to as the main free energy currency for the jail cell. ATP serves as an intermediary molecule between chemical reactions that release energy, and chemical reactions that require energy. Information technology does so by temporarily “holding” the energy released past an enzymatic reaction in the covalent bonds that attach phosphates to ADP (the cherry ones in the figure above). Then, the molecule of ATP tin surrender that energy where information technology is needed.

The chemical formula summarizing this process, is

$ATP \leftrightarrow ADP + P_{i} \textsf{(inorganic phosphate)}$

Since the reaction tin get in either direction (from ADP to ATP, or from ATP to ADP), this is an example of a reversible reaction, and it is represented with an double arrow pointing in both directions.

Effigy $$\PageIndex{4}$$
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the free energy molecule in a jail cell. Free energy released by decomposition reactions tin can exist used to make a high energy covalent bond in ATP as shown in the figure. Then, ATP tin can give up this free energy to exist used for synthesis reactions.

## Which Element is Found in Both Dna and Protein

Source: https://med.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Anatomy_and_Physiology/Book:_Human_Anatomy_and_Physiology_Preparatory_Course_%28Liachovitzky%29/03:_Molecular_Level-_Biomolecules_the_Organic_Compounds_Associated_With_Living_Organisms/3.06:_Nucleic_Acids