Which Element is Found in Both Dna and Protein

Which Element is Found in Both Dna and Protein

3.vi: Nucleic Acids

  • Page ID
    11111
  • Learning objectiveS

    • Describe the general chemical structure of nucleic acids, place monomers and polymers, and list the functions of RNA and Deoxyribonucleic acid
    • Describe the structure and role of ATP in the prison cell

    Nucleic acids
    contain the same elements as proteins: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen; plus phosphorous (C, H, O, N, and P).
    Nucleic acids
    are very large macromolecules equanimous of repetitive units of the same building blocks,
    nucleotides, similar to a pearl necklace fabricated of many pearls. We tin can likewise define nucleic acids as
    polymers
    assembled from many smaller covalently bonded
    monomers.

    Nucleic acids are the molecules that function in encoding, transmitting and expressing genetic information in our cells.

    All
    nucleotides
    are made of three subunits: one or more phosphate groups, a pentose saccharide (five-carbon sugar, either deoxyribose or ribose), and a nitrogen-containing base of operations (either adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine, or uracil). See figure \(\PageIndex{1}\) beneath.



    Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\)
    A nucleic acid short fragment fabricated of v nucleotides is shown on the right; i nucleotide is enclosed in a red rectangle. Each nucleotide is made of one of the v nitrogenous bases, a pentose sugar (ribose
    or
    deoxyribose) and a phosphate group. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) has ribose for a pentose, whereas deoxyribonucleic acid (Deoxyribonucleic acid) has deoxyribose. The five nitrogenous bases are classified as
    pyrimidines
    (cytosine, thymine, and uracil), which have a band construction; and
    purines
    (adenine and guanine), which accept a double-ring structure. RNA molecules may have up to few-chiliad nucleotides and are singlestranded, whereas Deoxyribonucleic acid molecules take billions of nucleotides organized in two strings of nucleotides forming a helix. DNA, RNA, and proteins are related to each other every bit shown in table \(\PageIndex{1}\) below.

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    Table \(\PageIndex{1}\) Deoxyribonucleic acid, RNA, and proteins relationship
    Deoxyribonucleic acid \(\rightarrow\) is used to synthesize RNA \(\rightarrow\) which is used to synthesize Proteins
    Polymers of nucleotides Polymer of nucleotides Polymer of amino acids
    Encodes amino acid sequence of proteins Transmits and expresses information in Deoxyribonucleic acid Perform most cellular functions

    clipboard_eadba496bacaaae2f0aa14161059bc0bc.png

    Figure \(\PageIndex{two}\)
    DNA and RNA share three nucleotides in their limerick (cytosine, guanine, and adenine), and they differ in uracil (found only in RNA) and thymine (found but in Dna). RNA is single strand, whereas Dna in double strand

    Tabular array \(\PageIndex{two}\) Types of nucleic acids and their functions
    Blazon of Nucleic Acid Function
    Dna Encodes and transmits inherited genetic data from ane generation to the next
    RNA Translates the information encoded in Dna for the product of proteins and help in their synthesis

    Concepts, terms, and facts bank check

    Study Questions
    Write your answer in a sentence form (practise not answer using loose words)

    one. What is a nucleic acid?
    two. What elements are nucleic acids made of?
    three. What are the monomers that make the edifice blocks of nucleic acids?
    4. What are the 3 components of a nucleotide?
    5. List the types of nucleic acids described in the module
    half-dozen. What are the functions of nucleic acrid listed in the module?

    Nucleotides are the monomers that make up the nucleic acid polymers. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a nucleotide that has an important office by itself. ATP is a direct and rapid free energy source for most cellular activities. ATP consists of a unmarried adenosine (the nitrogen-containing base adenine and the sugar ribose), linked to three phosphate ions.

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    clipboard_ea91d30ce7a34764f08726a9618809c79.png

    Effigy \(\PageIndex{3}\)
    The 2 covalent bonds on the right of the molecule (shown in red) are high energy bonds. When an enzymatic reaction breaks them down, a large amount of energy is released. This energy is gear up to be used by a cell. On the other paw, when molecules (like the ones we incorporate in our nutrition) are cleaved down by enzymes they release energy. This energy can be temporarily held on ATP molecules in the covalent bonds formed between free phosphate groups and adenosine diphosphate (ADP)

    ATP is regularly referred to as the main free energy currency for the jail cell. ATP serves as an intermediary molecule between chemical reactions that release energy, and chemical reactions that require energy. Information technology does so by temporarily “holding” the energy released past an enzymatic reaction in the covalent bonds that attach phosphates to ADP (the cherry ones in the figure above). Then, the molecule of ATP tin surrender that energy where information technology is needed.

    The chemical formula summarizing this process, is

    \[ATP \leftrightarrow ADP + P_{i} \textsf{(inorganic phosphate)}\]

    Since the reaction tin get in either direction (from ADP to ATP, or from ATP to ADP), this is an example of a reversible reaction, and it is represented with an double arrow pointing in both directions.

    clipboard_e28632f28d65241e2be302adc9ab82aba.png

    Effigy \(\PageIndex{4}\)
    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the free energy molecule in a jail cell. Free energy released by decomposition reactions tin can exist used to make a high energy covalent bond in ATP as shown in the figure. Then, ATP tin can give up this free energy to exist used for synthesis reactions.

    Which Element is Found in Both Dna and Protein

    Source: https://med.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Anatomy_and_Physiology/Book:_Human_Anatomy_and_Physiology_Preparatory_Course_%28Liachovitzky%29/03:_Molecular_Level-_Biomolecules_the_Organic_Compounds_Associated_With_Living_Organisms/3.06:_Nucleic_Acids