Traffic Signals at Expressway on-ramps Use _____ Lights


  • Railroad Crossings
  • Motorway Driving
  • Dark Driving
  • Driving in Rain, Fog or Snow
  • How to Drive in Winter
  • How to Avoid Collisions with Deer
  • Driving Emergencies
  • Affiliate x Quiz

Notation:  Practice quizzes are available only for those sections of the manual roofing rules of the road (Chapters iv through eleven and Route Signs).

Even nether the best atmospheric condition, driving requires your full attending and your best judgment. When special conditions or hazards occur, attending and judgment become fifty-fifty more important. To exist a proficient and safe driver, you lot must acquire how to bulldoze on expressways, at night, in bad weather and when an emergency occurs.



A class crossing is the point at which train tracks intersect with a roadway and is considered an intersection. As y’all approach a crossing, always expect a train. Trains can run on any track, at any fourth dimension, from either direction. Never race a railroad train to a crossing, never drive around lowered gates, and exercise not end on tracks. (Y’all will learn afterward in the section what to do if your vehicle stalls or gets stuck on a rail.) When crossing tracks, always stay in your lane and in the aforementioned gear.

Some class crossings have flashing red lights or lowering gates when a railroad train approaches (“agile” grade crossings). When approaching marked, or active, form crossings, do not proceed until the gates are completely raised and the lights are off. It is illegal and unsafe to go around lowered gates or to cross while the lights are notwithstanding flashing.

Some class crossing practice not take gates or flashing lights. When approaching unmarked, or passive, grade crossings, tiresome down and be prepared to stop. Earlier you cantankerous, exist certain that a train is not coming. If you meet a train coming, wait until it passes, and so cross the tracks when it is safe to do and then. If in that location are multiple tracks, wait until you lot can conspicuously encounter down all sets of tracks in both directions for another approaching train before crossing.

Remember that the train you encounter is closer and faster-moving than you retrieve, and exist aware that trains cannot terminate quickly.

Railroad Crossing Warning Signrailroad crossing warning sign

COLOR: Yellow with blackness messages “RR” and “X” symbol.

MEANING: There is a railroad crossing alee. Use caution, and exist prepared to stop. If yous are post-obit a motorcoach or truck budgeted a railroad crossing, be careful. Near buses and some trucks must terminate at railroad crossings. (Run across “Railroad Crossing Signals”.)

Railroad Crossing Signals

 Flashing blood-red lights, lowered crossing gates and/or a bell at a railroad crossing indicate that y’all must stop, at least 15 feet (5 m) from the tracks. Practise non go across the tracks until the lights and bell have stopped and the crossing gates are completely up. Practice not drive around or under a gate that is moving up or downwardly.

railroad crossing signals

Yield when you see a crossbuck sign, which is a sign shaped like an “10” with “RAILROAD CROSSING” printed on it. If there are multiple train tracks, the sign volition show the number of tracks.

Wait and mind for trains before crossing any railroad tracks. If an approaching train is near enough or going fast enough to exist a danger, yous cannot get beyond the tracks, even if they have no signals or the signals are not working.

Do not, under any circumstances, try to cantankerous any railroad tracks unless you are sure your entire vehicle will articulate all of the tracks at the crossing.
You cannot go beyond any railroad tracks unless there is room for your vehicle on the other side. If other traffic prevents you from going fully across, expect and go across just when there is room.

Schoolhouse buses with or without passengers, other buses with passengers on board and vehicles with explosives or combustible cargo must stop at all railroad crossings. Remember those rules if you are following one of these vehicles.

Pavement Markingsrailroad crossing pavement marking

Sometimes, grade crossings do not have flashing scarlet light signals or gates. Pavement markings will ofttimes show yous that a form crossing is ahead. Stay backside the stop line while waiting for a train to pass.

Stalling on Railroad Tracks

railroad emergency contact information sign

What should y’all do if you stall on the tracks, for any reason?

1. Go OUT! (That includes Anybody in the car, children, babies, an elderly passenger, etc.)

2. Get away from the tracks, fifty-fifty if yous practice not run into a railroad train.

iii. Locate the Emergency Notification Organisation sign and telephone call the number provided, telling them about the stalled vehicle.

Run toward the general direction the train is coming from. If a train is approaching, run toward the train but away from the tracks at a 45-caste bending. If you run “down the track,” in the same direction as the train, you lot can be hitting with debris when the train hits your vehicle.


“Expressway” ways whatever divided highway where traffic moves in i management on two or more lanes. Yous normally enter or exit the expressway on ramps (controlled-access). The speed limit is usually 55 mph (88 km/h), but tin can be posted at 65 mph (105 km/h) in some rural areas. Examples or expressways are the New York State State highway, major interstate routes and parkways.

Before you travel on an superhighway, place your entrance and exit points on a road map.  Know where to get on and off the freeway and exist prepared to get into the right lanes for your entrance and get out. If you enter an pike going a dissimilar direction than y’all intended, or at the wrong exit, stay on the expressway until the side by side exit. After you go out the thruway, you can figure out where you need to become and (if necessary) get back on the throughway. IT IS DANGEROUS to back up on an archway or go out ramp, or to endeavor to cross a median.

Expressway Driving - on ramp

Unless in that location is a Cease or YIELD sign or traffic light on the entrance ramp, use the ramp to accelerate to freeway speed and blend with traffic. Indicate, then look over your shoulder for traffic already on the expressway. If necessary, slow downwards to safely merge into traffic.

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If the entrance lane is too short to allow acceleration to expressway speed, the safest method to enter is to stop and wait for a large infinite in traffic. So enter the expressway and advance quickly. To avert conflicts with other entrance lane traffic, stop when necessary and merge into motorway traffic as soon as possible.

As you bulldoze on the expressway, brand certain to signal all lane changes and check over your shoulder to brand sure yous will non cut off any vehicles behind you. Make sure your directional signal goes off afterward you change lanes.

Remain alarm for traffic that enters ahead. If possible, move from the correct lane when yous approach the entrances to allow more room for traffic entering the expressway from the ramp.

Expressway Driving - off ramp

To prevent a terminal-infinitesimal lane change, check the destination and exit signs, and become into the correct lane for your exit ahead of time. Brand certain to indicate your exit at least 100 feet (xxx m) before y’all reach the exit ramp. When you are on the leave ramp, decrease your speed. There is oft a lower speed limit for the ramp.

Afterwards you leave an expressway, look for speed limit signs and cheque your speedometer to exist sure you are driving inside the posted limit. You are not likely to be on a 55 mph (88 km/h) road.

Expressway driving normally combines higher speeds with heavy traffic. The higher speed and corporeality of traffic crave you to remember faster and handle your vehicle in a more efficient manner than in nigh other atmospheric condition. On long trips, plan frequent rest stops. On a bright twenty-four hour period, sunglasses tin can reduce glare and middle fatigue.


About 90% of your decisions are based on what you see. At night, you must use extra circumspection to brand up for reduced visibility. You should also know that the power to see well at dark decreases with age.

Night driving is more dangerous considering the distance you can come across ahead or to the side is reduced. You should drive slower than y’all would in daylight, especially in areas that are not known or on narrow roads with many curves. Your headlights comprehend near 350 feet ahead. It is of import that y’all drive at a speed that allows you lot to cease safely inside that distance. This is called “driving within the range” of your headlights.

The law requires y’all to use your headlights from one-one-half hour after the sun sets to one-half hour before the dominicus rises, when visibility is less than 1,000 feet (300 m) and when you lot use your windshield wipers to articulate rain, snowfall or sleet. Turn your headlights on at dawn, dusk and in fog. Even when headlights do not help you see in low-lite periods, they get in easier for other drivers and pedestrians to see your vehicle. Do not utilize parking lights or daytime lights as a replacement. Headlights do a better job. If an oncoming driver flashes headlights at you lot during a catamenia of low visibility, information technology means your vehicle was difficult to meet and you should turn on your headlights.

Be considerate when yous use your loftier beams. Your headlights must be on low beam when you are within 500 feet (150 m) of an oncoming vehicle or within 200 anxiety (60 m) of a vehicle ahead of you, fifty-fifty if the vehicle ahead is in a different lane. You should too dim your lights for pedestrians who arroyo you. Whatsoever fog or driving lights your vehicle has must be arranged, adapted or operated to avoid dangerous glare to other drivers.

If an approaching driver does not dim the headlights, flash your headlights to high beam for a second, and then return to low beam. To help avert the glare of approaching loftier beams, motility your eyes to the right. Apply the road edge as a guide until the budgeted vehicle passes by.

To reduce glare from the lights of following vehicles, switch your within rear view mirror to the “night” position.

Light from inside your vehicle or from street lights makes it harder for you to come across the road ahead. Proceed the interior roof light off and dim the dashboard lights. Arrange your visors to reduce glare from lights from above.

A dirty windshield increases glare from budgeted headlights. Make certain your lights and windshield drinking glass are make clean for night driving.

DRIVING IN Rain, FOG OR Snowfall

A fleck of rain, snowfall or water ice makes roads glace. Wet leaves tin can be glace and hazardous. Reduced speed and increased following distance better your safety under these conditions (see Chapter 8).  Take additional intendance on curves, turns and pike ramps.

In heavy pelting, your tires tin can begin to ride on the h2o that is on summit of the route pavement. This is called “hydroplaning” and can cause complete loss of traction and control of steering. Hydroplaning normally occurs at higher speeds, but information technology likewise can occur if your tires are tread worn or not inflated properly. When in that location is heavy pelting, it always makes sense to drive more slowly. If your vehicle begins to lose traction, subtract your speed even more. Skilful tires with deep tread help to prevent hydroplaning.

Rain, fog or snow brand information technology harder to see through your windshield, and difficult for other drivers to encounter you. New York State constabulary requires you to plow on your headlights when the atmospheric condition conditions require the apply of windshield wipers to clear rain, snow, sleet or fog. “Daytime lights” do not qualify as headlights.

Headlights on high beams reverberate rain, fog and snow as it falls. This makes it fifty-fifty harder for you to run into. For better visibility during these weather conditions, keep your headlights on low beam. Reduce your speed. Signal your turns further ahead of time to requite other drivers and roadway users more than warning. Restriction early when y’all decrease speed behind some other vehicle or come to an intersection stop.

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Some vehicles have forepart fog lights or front and dorsum fog lights, for use when heavy fog or similar hazardous weather weather restrict visibility. In New York State, all fog lights must be correctly installed and of a type approved by the Commissioner of DMV.  Front fog lights can be amber or white in color. Back fog lights must be red and tin be larger than the normal back lights – they will give advance alarm of the presence of your vehicle to the drivers backside y’all. When visibility improves, you can switch off your fog lights to reduce the glare that can carp other drivers.


Winter is the near difficult season in which to drive. In improver to snow and ice on the roads, there are fewer hours of daylight.

Earlier winter weather arrives, make sure your vehicle is in good condition.

Make sure your vehicle has good snow tires. Put them on the vehicle before the kickoff tempest. Never combine radial and non-radial tires on the same vehicle. Tires with metal studs can be used in New York Land only from Oct xvi through Apr thirty.

During water ice or snow storms, do not drive unless you must. If you must bulldoze, first articulate the ice and snowfall from your vehicle. This includes the headlights and back lights, the windshield wipers and all of the windows. Make sure the windshield washer reservoir is filled with a cleaning solution that resists freezing.

Drive slowly. Even if your vehicle has good traction in ice and snow, other drivers will travel with caution. Do not pause the catamenia of traffic by driving faster than other vehicles.

In a rear-bike bulldoze vehicle, you lot can commonly feel a loss of traction or the commencement of a slide. With a forepart-wheel drive vehicle, there might non exist a alarm. Although front end-wheel drive and four-wheel bulldoze vehicles unremarkably handle better in ice and snow, they do non have flawless traction; skids can occur without a alert. Do not let the ability to amend handle a front-wheel or 4-bicycle vehicle brand you drive faster than the conditions dictate.

The best method to recover from a skid is the same for both front and rear-wheel bulldoze vehicles.

how to steer out of a skid

If your rear wheels showtime to skid:

  • Turn the steering cycle in the direction the vehicle is trying to go. If your rear wheels slide left, steer left. If they slide right, steer right.
  • If your rear wheels start to slide in the other management equally yous recover, turn the steering wheel toward that side. Yous might accept to turn the wheel left and right several times to get your vehicle completely controlled.
  • If your vehicle has anti-lock brakes (ABS), keep your human foot with fifty-fifty pressure level on the restriction pedal. If your vehicle does not have ABS, pump the pedal advisedly. Pump more rapidly only as your car slows down. If y’all brake hard with regular brakes, information technology volition make the situation worse.

If your forepart wheels skid:

  • Take your pes off the gas and shift to neutral or button in the clutch, merely do not try to immediately steer.
  • Every bit the wheels skid sideways, they will boring the vehicle and traction will return. As traction returns, turn the wheel in the direction you want to get. So put the manual in “drive” or release the clutch and accelerate carefully.

To forestall skids on snow and ice, brake early, carefully and gently. “Press” your brakes in slow, steady strokes. Allow the wheels to keep turning. If they begin to lock up, decrease pressure level on the restriction pedal. Equally your vehicle decreases speed, you can likewise shift into a lower gear.

When sleet, freezing pelting or snow begin to autumn, think that bridges, ramps and overpasses volition freeze starting time. Also know that slippery spots may remain afterwards route workers have removed the snowfall.


Two-thirds of all deer-vehicle collisions occur during the months of October, November and December. This is also the time when deer breed and when they travel the most. Daily deer activity is highest at dawn and dusk, which often is the highest time of travel for motor-vehicle commuters. Deer travel in groups – if you see one, look more.  Areas where there take been many deer-vehicle collisions frequently are marked with deer crossing signs. The New York State Department of Ecology Conservation recommends these precautions motorists can take to reduce the gamble of a deer striking:

  • Exist conscientious when y’all drive at dawn and dusk; this is when driver visibility is bad and the deer are about active.
  • The risk of deer-vehicle collisions increases when deer movements increase during breeding season in October, November and Dec.
  • Decrease speed when y’all approach deer near roadsides. Deer can “commodities” or change management at the last minute.
  • If y’all see a deer go across the road, decrease speed and be careful. Deer travel in groups, await other deer to follow.
  • Utilize emergency lights or wink your headlights to warn other drivers when deer are seen on or nearly the route.
  • Use caution on roadways marked with deer crossing signs. These signs are put in areas that have had a big number of deer-vehicle collisions.


The nigh important rule in whatever emergency is do not panic. You have a better chance in an emergency if you practise non let fear accept over. In most emergencies, you will have a second or ii to think before you act.

Here is what to do in different emergency situations:

– A thumping sound can be a alarm that a blowout is about to occur. If you hear it, get safely off the route and check your tires. If a tire blows out, hold the steering wheel tight and slowly have your foot off the gas pedal. If your vehicle skids, handle it as you lot would on ice or snow. Practise not use your restriction until your vehicle is controlled. Leave the road when it is prophylactic to do and then.

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– Handle this as yous would a blowout. A thump or noise in the wheel can exist a warning sound. Leave the roadway and end. Then bank check your vehicle or have it checked.

– If your vehicle suddenly will non respond when you steer, slowly take your foot off the gas pedal, turn on your emergency lights and keep your pes off the brake pedal while it is rubber to do so. The balance of the vehicle will allow information technology to keep going directly, but a sudden change in speed could ship it out of control. As the vehicle decreases speed, you can restriction very carefully to bring it to a terminate..

Restriction FAILURE
– If your brake pedal all of a sudden goes to the floor, try pumping it to increase pressure. If that does non help, utilize your emergency or parking brake – only use it gently. If yous shift to a lower gear, information technology will help your vehicle subtract speed.

– If your headlights suddenly go out, try your emergency lights, parking lights and directional signals. These may continue to work and can requite you enough lite to get out the roadway safely. If your headlights begin to dim, bulldoze to a service station or pull off the road and go for help.

– Hook your shoe under the pedal and see if you can gratuitous information technology. If not, shift into neutral and use the brake to slow your vehicle and get off the road. Exercise non turn off the ignition if your vehicle has ability steering or a steering bicycle that has a column that locks, considering if you lot exercise, you volition lose your power steering or non have the ability to steer at all.

– If your wheels move off the pavement, do not pull the steering cycle dorsum. Ease your foot off the gas pedal and restriction gently.  When your vehicle has decreased speed, check for traffic backside you, then turn carefully back onto the pavement.

– Decrease speed, pull over to the right and audio your horn to warn the other driver. Do not plow into the left lane. If you lot practise, the other driver may suddenly recover and pull dorsum into that lane, causing a caput-on collision.

– If a railroad train approaches, release your seat belt, leave the vehicle and get every bit far away as you can from the tracks. Run toward the general management the train is coming from. If you run “down the track” in the same direction equally the train, you can be hitting with debris when the train hits your vehicle. When you are completely sure no trains are coming, open your window to mind for a train and try to beginning the engine. If that fails, shift your vehicle into neutral and push it from the tracks.

– A vehicle will ordinarily float for a while, and you lot should have time to remove yourself earlier it starts to sink. Release your seat belt and escape through a window. An open door would cause water to rush in and the car could turn over on top of you.

If the vehicle sinks before you can remove yourself, become into the back seat. An air pocket can class there as the weight of the engine pulls the vehicle downwards front first. When the vehicle settles, take a breath and escape through a window. When you rise air pressure volition build in your lungs. Allow it out in small breaths through your olfactory organ or lips equally you lot surface. Exercise non hold your breath tight or endeavour to accident air out; merely allow the air to escape in a natural manner.

– If you run across smoke come from under the hood, pull off the route and park your vehicle. Plow off the ignition. Get away from the car and call the fire department. It is dangerous to endeavor to fight the burn yourself.

– If your hood opens all of a sudden or your vision through the windshield becomes blocked by some other object or wipers that have failed, you tin can open the side window and then you can see. Plow on your emergency lights and carefully pull your vehicle off the route and park it.


Earlier you go on to Chapter 11, make certain yous tin answer these questions:

  • What color and shape is a railroad crossing warning sign?
  • What should yous do if you lot miss an expressway get out?
  • What are expressway entrance ramps used for?
  • What should yous do if an entrance ramp is short?
  • When should you lot signal that y’all are exiting an expressway?
  • What should you bank check for when you leave an state highway?
  • Why is throughway driving different from normal driving?
  • What is the main reason night driving is more hard than daytime driving?
  • Driving within the range of your headlights indicates y’all can stop your vehicle within about how many feet?
  • What should you do if you are blinded by headlights on an approaching vehicle?
  • Is it best to keep your headlights on high beam or low beam when at that place is fog, pelting or falling snow?
  • Which direction should you turn your steering wheel to get out of a skid?
  • How should you lot use your brake pedal on a slippery road?
  • What is the most important rule to remember in any emergency?
  • What should you exercise if one of your tires blows out?
  • What is the first thing you should exercise if your brakes neglect?
  • What should you do if your wheels move off the pavement?

End of Affiliate 10:
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Affiliate 10 Quiz

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Traffic Signals at Expressway on-ramps Use _____ Lights