Abstract: Encephalon research indicates that repetition is
of vital importance in
the learning process. … A useful strategy in music education for a wide diversity of learners, repetition tin be made engaging through artistic and improvisatory pedagogy techniques.
What is the importance of repetition?
Importance of Repetition. Repetition is an important literary device because information technology
allows a writer or speaker to place emphasis on things they choose every bit meaning. It tells the reader or audience that the words existence used are central enough to be repeated, and lets them know when to pay special attention to the language …
for remembering information in which you lot read, write, and say the information a number of times.
What learning theory uses repetition?
According to this
multiple-trace theory, repetition improves learning because finding at least ane trace of an event becomes easier when there are more than traces of that effect in retention. A fundamental deviation betwixt these two accounts concerns the representation of the individual occurrences of a repeated detail.
Repetition is essential
to secure the new learning as long-term memories. The repetitions are tasks which use the new learning, rather than repetitions of the teaching. The idea is that constructive repetitions secure the learning so that no repetition of the instruction is needed.
Why is repetition important in instruction?
Repetition is a key learning assist because
it helps transition a skill from the conscious to the subconscious. Through repetition, a skill is adept and apposite over time and gradually becomes easier. … Another of import cistron in learning is the ability to make connections to previously learned knowledge.
What are the steps in the repetition strategy?
Repetition is i of the most popular ways. When we wait at the prompt you provided, nosotros run across three steps—(a) read the information, (b) write the information, and (c) say the information. These iii steps assistance you experience the information in more ways than but ane like if y’all were simply reading the information.
What theorists believe in repetition?
In ancient Greece,
commented on the role of repetition in learning by proverb “information technology is frequent repetition that produces a natural tendency” (Ross & Aristotle, 1906, p.
How exercise you bear witness repetition?
For repetition to exist noticeable, the
words or phrases should be repeated within close proximity of each other. Repeating the same words or phrases in a literary work of poesy or prose can bring clarity to an idea and/or make it memorable for the reader.
What is the power of repetition?
The power of repetition is
in its simplicity. A message heard repeatedly is more likely to stay in your listen. The more than senses a concept touches, and times it is heard, the more likely your team will hear your message and assistance deliver the results you desire.
What is the commencement step in the repetition strategy?
beginning step in the repetition strategy
is to revisit the information. To make the nearly out of a flashcard, you should put equally much information every bit you lot can onto 1 card. Using
to study ways to read, write and say the information over and over again.
What is the principle of repetition?
The principle of repetition simply ways
the reusing of the same or similar elements throughout your design. Repetition of certain design elements in a slide or among a deck of slides volition bring a clear sense of unity, consistency, and cohesiveness.
Is repetition the key to success?
Repetition, and the subsequent mastery, is
the key to transforming your life
and it will start moving you lot speedily toward your success.
What is the correct order for the repetition strategy?
The correct order in which to utilise the repetition strategy is:
Read, write, say.
What is the 2nd activeness in the repetition strategy?
footstep in the
is to_____________the data. The more times yous repeat something, the less likely you are to remember it. Learning through
does not utilize to concrete
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- When y’all want to recollect a phone number, exercise y’all echo it to yourself several times until yous become the whole number dialed?
- When y’all get to the grocery story and want to remember four items, practice you hold up 4 fingers to cue yourself to think?
- When someone asks you about a wedding you went to a few years agone, how exercise you phone call up the retentivity? Some people may first think of the food. Others may remember the helpmate’due south wearing apparel. Yet others may recall the décor. Once y’all accept a hook into the memory, each think seems to trigger additional aspects of the issue.
- What exercise you do to remember an important phone phone call you must make as you’re driving habitation? You know that when you enter the house the dog will be barking and your children will each have something urgent to tell you. You don’t accept whatsoever paper to write a note. Some people may sing a little song or chant: “call so-and-so, call so-and-and so.” Others may visualize an association then that when they walk into the den to put down their package, that activeness will trigger a reminder to brand the call.
We all utilize strategies throughout our solar day to call back the diversity of facts and ideas we need to retain. Strategy employ forms a critical role of our learning feel. Strategies help us organize information into patterns and encourage purposeful learning. Our brains are selective. Brains tend to think data that forms a memorable pattern.
Information technology is valuable for us, as teachers, therapists, and parents, to have a basic understanding of how nosotros call back information so we improve appreciate the need for strategies. Equally we understand the purpose, we become meliorate equipped to help our students understand and utilise strategies.
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Memory is a highly complex procedure involving multiple components working simultaneously. Our description of isolated components is simply a representation because in reality our brains process information in an integrated style.
Everything begins every bit sensory input from our environment. Using our sensory systems, we run into, sense of taste, hear, or feel a sensation or stimuli. We take a mechanism to filter out and discard irrelevant or unnecessary data, such as the feel of the carpet equally we walk or the sound of the air conditioner. This aforementioned filtering mechanism organizes relevant data into meaningful patterns. In figure one, the funnel and the filter represent these processes: sensory input and sensory memory.
Figure i Memory process schema
The diagram in effigy 1 is a representation of the memory system: Information moves from Sensory Input through Sensory Retention and Short-Term Memory and eventually into Long-Term Memory (Richards, 2003, p. 17).
Information “grabbed,” or fabricated meaningful, moves on to short-term memory. Our brains are programmed to pay attention to the unusual – something different. Incorporating novelty such as humour, movement, or music, into strategies helps the information concenter our attention.
The apply of strategies plays a very critical role in structuring input to aid it move into long-term retentiveness in a meaningful and memorable format. To constitute a more durable memory, nosotros demand to prevent incoming information from beingness “dumped.” We accomplish this by associating it meaningfully with knowledge that already exists.
If the data is important and is apposite, it moves to another part of the encephalon to be coded and then is somewhen stored in long-term retention. In effigy 1, a file cabinet represents long-term retentivity. The entire memory is not filed intact in a location, rather, the specific components of the experience are each stored as private files.
In thinking well-nigh how memory works, information technology is critical to realize that each individual has a different way of processing and remembering. There is more than than 1 way to store a given retentivity, just equally there are often multiple routes to drive to a destination. Ane person may choose to go to the grocery shop by route A whereas some other person may prefer route B. Either is appropriate. Similarly with retentiveness: One person may prefer to retrieve a list by singing it whereas another person may adopt to visualize an association. There is no one correct way.
This article presents a variety of strategy suggestions. We demand to pay attention to our pupil’s reactions to the strategies and help each child select and apply strategies that are comfy and nigh closely match his or her preferred learning style.
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This toolbox contains the three central strategies to help retentiveness:
patterns (RIP). Many students believe that only reading something is enough. Frequently, that is not sufficient. We think something all-time when it is organized and apposite.
Imagine if we every bit teachers, therapists, and parents reinforced students for their employ of concrete strategies in organizing their information. Pediatrician, Dr. Mel Levine suggests: I thought that earlier a test, kids ought to be asked to mitt in a memory program. The same mode a pilot would hand in a flying plan. In other words, how are you going to go about getting stuff into and out of your memory? And students ought to be graded on the plan every bit much equally they are on their examination (Levine and Meltzer, 1998).
The following two strategies are general reminders to encourage students to employ a procedure when working to remember information. Each strategy is represented by a discussion or phrase wherein each alphabetic character represents i of the steps.
The RIP Toolbox for Retentiveness
|R SOW V||TRAP|
|R||Relax & Concentrate
People who are tense and nether stress are decumbent to memory lapses
Translate the data or ideas into your ain words
Rushing or being impulsive reduces attention to the information or task
Rehearse the information immediately and relate the new to the old ideas
Organize the data or organize locations; keep important items in a designated identify
|A||A moving picture
A picture is worth 1000 words; visualize the data
|W||Write down or repeat
A small notebook, calendar, record recorder or PDA can be very useful
The more than information is proficient, the better will be the recall
Associate an image with the information to recall
Select the strategy you experience is advisable for your students. Teach each step, one at a time. Exist sure they empathise each footstep and its pregnant before moving on to the next. Then evidence the steps in sequence and explain how to utilise the mnemonic or keyword to help recall the steps.
An important criterion to continue in mind is, “don’t pack and stack.” This ways to progress slowly and not stack as well many new things on top of each other. Provide each student with time to process and consolidate ane thing before moving on.
Several years ago, a FarSide drawing was published showing a classroom situation. The student raised his hand and asked to be excused considering his “brain was full.” This highlights an of import circumspection to recollect in using strategies: become slowly. Too many strategies at once may misfile the student rather than help.
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In figure 2, a child is jumping on a small trampoline, reviewing associations. He is also tossing the ball with each item.
Repetition and rehearsal of information raise a process called consolidation, the process by which memories are moved from temporary storage in the hippocampus (a small structure within the brain) to more permanent storage in the cortex (the outer layer of the brain) (Richards, 2003, p. 24).
Multiple repetitions of the information provides rehearsal, but doing so may bore students. When bored, the brain can get into a pattern similar to the “screen saver” mode on your figurer monitor. The educatee may not pay attention to what he is repeating. Therefore, using strategies with sense of humour, movement, songs, and other forms of novelty are disquisitional in enhancing the value of the repetition.
- Practice proverb the capital letter and the state together, as in “Sacramento, California; Columbus, Ohio” etc. This helps create the association between the two words.
- Develop lightheaded mnemonics to assist think which capital goes with the country. For Ohio, sketch a picture of a person saying, “oh, hullo, oh Columbus.” This associates the give-and-take “Columbus” with the word “Ohio.”
- Do matching wink cards of capitals to state names, and states to capitals.
- Perform a motor action such equally jumping on a small trampoline or playing catch while saying the city in response to hearing the state, or vice versa (see figure two).
- Create a rap or jingle that repeats each state and its capital.
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There are many kinds of imagery, and all forms are valuable to the memory process. When thinking about imagery, most people call back of the visual paradigm. However, images can also be a motor image, sometimes chosen “muscle memory,” or an auditory epitome.
A visual picture can cue a strategy or represent a concept. For instance, suppose your educatee needs to retrieve that our First Amendment rights are free spoken language, religion, the press, and the right of associates. Since information technology is the Get-go Subpoena and ane rhymes with sun, use a lord’s day as a visual cue. Draw a happy sun with legs and arms, singing. Place the give-and-take RAPS in a talk chimera, as shown in figure 3. RAPS is a mnemonic to remember the freedoms of
Speech. (Richards, 2003, p. 198).
Fig. 3 – A mnemonic for the 4 freedoms granted past the Showtime Amendment
Because brains recollect data that forms a memorable design, visual organizers are extremely useful. There are many different types of visual organizers. Some are descriptive: the main idea of a chapter section is placed in the center. Lines extend, with each representing a major concept. The representations may apply pictures, icons, or keywords. The instance organizer below was developed in preplanning a paragraph on dogs (Richards, 2001, p. 34).
Fig. 4 – Visual organizer to identify some characteristics of “dog”
There are many uses for visual organizers. They can emphasize cause-and-effect, the sequence of an issue or episode, or create a summary of what was read. Visual organizers are also useful in planning for a paragraph or report and in studying for a examination.
Categorization is a critical skill for students considering information technology forms the basis for critical thinking and inferential comprehension when reading. A Venn diagram is a valuable organizer that visually emphasizes comparisons and contrasts. A Venn diagram comparing characteristics of mammals and reptiles was presented in the article The Writing Road.
Other uses for Venn diagrams include comparing 2 characters in a story or two different events in history. Two overlapping circles are drawn and characteristics of one item or event are listed in the left side of the circle if they differ from the other particular. The characteristics of the second item are listed in the right side of the circle if they differ from the first item. Characteristics that are mutual to both items are placed in the middle. Figure five shows an case of a Venn diagram that comparing and contrasting volcanoes to revolutions. This information was assembled by having students brainstorm what they knew near each item.
Initially, it may appear that the concepts of a volcano and a revolution are different. Really, there are many similarities. Suppose your student has studied volcanoes and understands the characteristics. She may and then compare this cognition to characteristics of a revolution. Doing and then forms a pattern comparing new ideas to ideas already learned. Thus, your student elaborates her understanding of each concept every bit she connects noesis about volcanoes to another eruption, a revolution (Richards, 2003, p. 50).
Fig. 5 – Venn diagram of volcanoes and revolutions
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Neurons that fire together, wire together.
To sympathise a motor image, think about struggling to recollect a telephone number. You may move your fingers in the pattern of the phone number as if dialing it and find that this helps you recall the number.
Repetition and do trigger neurons (brain cells). When a prepare of neurons fire together, they develop a “habit” of firing together again. Habits also every bit academic learning occur this manner. Use multisensory strategies then your child simultaneously sees, hears, and touches or moves with the information.
Did you lot ride a bike when younger? Did you learn to ride your cycle by reading a book well-nigh it? No, you needed to actually do riding. With enough repetition, you retained a motor image of the procedure. Would you lot be able to now go on a bicycle and ride with relative ease? Almost people will answer yes to this question. Why is that? Our muscles remember data or procedures that were practiced many times. Muscle memory is a powerful learning tool!
Every bit an example, students may use motor images of the direction of the letters
by using a manus design or “Fonzie fists” (named after the character Fonzie in “Happy Days”). Have your child agree his hands facing his body and brand a fist with each thumb sticking direct up (figure 6). The left-hand is similar to a
and the right hand is similar to
d. Your child can recall the sequence by maxim the alphabet “a,
d” (Richards, 2001, p. 86).
Fig. 6 – Hands forming the shape of the letters b and d – a motor image
Practicing letter of the alphabet form or spelling words is enhanced past using air writing, another technique to create a motor image for the educatee (Richards, 1999, p. 163). Air writing (figure 7) involves writing the letters in the air (creating a motor image) while besides imagining seeing the letters (creating a visual image). The pupil should simultaneously say the letter as she writes it in the air (creating an auditory image).
Fig. 7 – Student writing letter
in air while visualizing the shape of the letter of the alphabet and saying the proper noun of the letter*
Other motor image examples for spelling words are also easy to contain into a homework session: fist tapping and arm tapping. In fisting, the student taps each syllable of the word to be spelled using the side of her fists. She then spells the word syllable past syllable, this time tapping their fist to each sound inside the syllable as she spells it. In arm tapping, the educatee follows the same procedure of get-go identifying each syllable and then identifying every audio inside each syllable. This fourth dimension the educatee uses two fingers of i manus to tap on the forearm of the other manus. These simple strategies involve muscle memory while also helping the student continue systematically. These two aspects create a very powerful memory enhancer.
Many math strategies for finger adding, especially multiplication, take advantage of motor images or muscle memory. Examples are found in other publications such as LEARN: Playful Strategies for All Students (Richards, 2001, pp. 93-97) and The Source for Learning & Memory Strategies (Richards, 2003, pp. 161-164).
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The encephalon seeks meaning through patterns. Every bit we receive information from our senses, nosotros demand prior noesis and a organisation for organizing the information then we may assign pregnant to it. When information comes in, our brain searches around for existing knowledge. If the new data is something that activates a previously used neural network, then there’s a match. This is referred to as pattern recognition and is of tremendous value in enhancing retentivity.
Since our “thinking cap” is strongly influenced by patterns, non facts, remembering information is maximized when it is provided in contextual, event-oriented situations which include motor learning, location changes, music, rhythm, and novelty…. We do poorly when we “piecemeal” learning into linear, sequential facts and other out-of-context information lists”.
Eric Jensen, Super Teaching, p. 26
The strategies discussed above all aid create patterns. Additionally, the apply of music and rhyming creates a pattern or organization for the information. Using music to review concepts can be very powerful. Music also supports relaxation, creativity, and motivation. Students can create their own songs or raps, or they may use existing songs to review concepts and facts. Some songs that relate to specific fourth dimension periods in history are “The Ballad of David Crockett,” lyrics by Tom Blackburn; “The Battle Of New Orleans,” lyrics past Johnny Horton; or “When Johnny Comes Marching Home Over again,” lyrics by Patrick S. Gilmore.
It is also fun to change the words to a mutual song. In the example below, the tune of “Row, Row, Row Your Gunkhole” is used to sing about the importance of paying attention to a period at the finish of a judgement (Richards, 2003, p. 186).
Stop, stop, stop the words With a little dot. Use a period at the finish,
So they’ll know to stop.
Songs that reinforce bookish concepts are also available commercially, such as Best of Schoolhouse Rock.
Humor and silliness are valuable to use forth with other strategies considering our brains adopt to think unusual information. A curt sentence or a sequence of messages can be used to aid in the retentivity, with or without pictures or actual items. Remember, information technology is critical that your student understands and knows the data prior to using these mnemonics, the purpose of which is to serve as a
to bring up information. Post-obit are examples of useful mnemonics.
|The mnemonic||The beginning letter of the alphabet of each word helps think:|
The planets in order:
The planets in guild:
The spelling of the discussion
The chief steps in long segmentation:
The main steps in long division:
Roy G. Biv
The colors of the rainbow in society:
The sequence of directions, going clockwise:
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Henry Winkler has written several books describing his experiences as a educatee. This series of children’s novels are called Hank Zipzer: The More often than not True Confessions of the World’s All-time Underachiever. The books are available on audio tape, and students who struggle gain much past listening to the tapes. Hearing someone else, especially a famous person, depict frustrations with learning helps to validate students’ own experiences. The books also describe lead character Hank Zipzer’s many strengths and gifts. Students who struggle with reading benefit much more from listening to books such as this than from reading them.
I’ll never go out of my room. I hate my room. I hate my assignment. I detest my brain. Why couldn’t I call up or write or spell or add or divide? Forget about multiplying.
Information technology’south not like I don’t endeavour. I practice. I go over and over and over my times tables and my vocabulary lists. My sister tests me, and I know everything. Simply and then comes the test, and I can’t remember them. It’s like my heed is a chalkboard and the words just slide off it in the time it takes to walk from my apartment building to school, which is a block and a one-half away. It makes me so mad that sometimes I hit my head with my fist, hoping I’ll start everything working again.
Hank doesn’t demand to hit his caput. He needs someone to explicate to him how memory works and why he is struggling. He needs demystification. For instance, someone might say to him, “Your retention is similar a cupboard with a sticking door. It’s hard for you to remember things in schoolhouse because the door keeps getting stuck. We have to figure out how to make the door open up more easily!”
The way to help Hank, and other students facing a similar challenge, open the door to his closet is by using the tools in the RIP Toolbox.
Maybe I’1000 not so different after all. I realize that everyone was unlike in his or her ain way. I finally understand what it meant when people tell me, ‘We have all kinds of minds.’ We’re not all the same.
I begin to agree. Yep, information technology is skillful to have all kinds of minds – because we really are all different. Information technology keeps life interesting.
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- You’ve discovered the secret
- Way to become
- I’thousand proud of yous
- You’re on top of it
- At present you’ve got it
- You’re on your mode
- Adept for you
- Remarkable chore
- Cute work
- Creative job
- What an imagination
- Y’all make me express mirth
- You burnish my day
- Y’all mean the world to me
- Hurray for you
- A hug – a osculation – a smile
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The Second Step in the Repetition Strategy is To_____________the Information