Desktop is a Computer Term That Refers to

Figurer designed to be used on a stock-still location

A calculator lab with desktop PCs with flat-console monitors

A stylized illustration of a desktop personal computer, consisting of a case (containing the motherboard and processor), a monitor, a keyboard and a mouse

desktop reckoner
is a personal computer designed for regular use at a unmarried location on or almost a desk due to its size and power requirements. The about common configuration has a case that houses the ability supply, motherboard (a printed circuit lath with a microprocessor equally the central processing unit of measurement, memory, motorbus, certain peripherals and other electronic components), deejay storage (usually ane or more than difficult deejay drives, solid state drives, optical disc drives, and in early models a floppy disk bulldoze); a keyboard and mouse for input; and a calculator monitor, speakers, and, oft, a printer for output. The case may be oriented horizontally or vertically and placed either underneath, beside, or on top of a desk.





Prior to the widespread use of microprocessors, a computer that could fit on a desk was considered remarkably pocket-sized; the type of computers most commonly used were minicomputers, which, despite the proper name, were rather big and were “mini” only compared to the then-called “big iron”. Early computers, and afterwards the general purpose high throughput «mainframes», took up the space of a whole room. Minicomputers, on the contrary, by and large fit into one or a few refrigerator-sized racks, or, for the few smaller ones,
built into
a fairly large desk, not put
on acme
of information technology.

It was not until the 1970s when fully programmable computers appeared that could fit entirely on top of a desk. 1970 saw the introduction of the Datapoint 2200, a “smart” reckoner terminal consummate with keyboard and monitor, was designed to connect with a mainframe computer just that didn’t end owners from using its born computational abilities as a stand-alone desktop computer.[i]
The HP 9800 series, which started out equally programmable calculators in 1971 but was programmable in BASIC past 1972, used a smaller version of a minicomputer pattern based on ROM retentivity and had small one-line LED alphanumeric displays and displayed graphics with a plotter.[two]
The Wang 2200 of 1973 had a full-size cathode-ray tube (CRT) and cassette tape storage. The IBM 5100 in 1975 had a small CRT display and could be programmed in Basic and APL. These were mostly expensive specialized computers sold for business concern or scientific uses.[three]

Growth and evolution


Apple 2, TRS-fourscore and Commodore PET were first generation personal dwelling computers launched in 1977, which were aimed at the consumer market place – rather than businessmen or estimator hobbyists.
mag referred to these three every bit the “1977 Trinity” of personal computing.[4]
Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, desktop computers became the predominant type, the most popular beingness the IBM PC and its clones, followed past the Apple Macintosh,[v]
with the third-placed Commodore Amiga having some success in the mid-1980s but declining by the early on 1990s.

A person working on a 2004 tower PC estimator with a Dell monitor

Early personal computers, similar the original IBM Personal Reckoner, were enclosed in a “desktop instance“, horizontally oriented to have the display screen placed on top, thus saving infinite on the user’s actual desk, although these cases had to be sturdy enough to support the weight of CRT displays that were widespread at the time. Over the form of the 1990s, desktop cases gradually became less common than the more-accessible
tower cases
(Belfry was a trademark of NCR created by ad agency Reiser Williams deYong[
commendation needed
) that may be located on the floor under or abreast a desk rather than on a desk. Not only exercise these belfry cases have more than room for expansion, they have also freed up desk infinite for monitors which were condign larger every year. Desktop cases, specially the compact course factors, remain pop for corporate computing environments and kiosks. Some computer cases can exist interchangeably positioned either horizontally (desktop) or upright (mini-tower).

Influential games such as
during the 1990s had pushed gamers and enthusiasts to often upgrade to the latest CPUs and graphics cards (3dfx, ATI, and Nvidia) for their desktops (ordinarily a tower case) in order to run these applications, though this has slowed since the belatedly 2000s equally the growing popularity of Intel integrated graphics forced game developers to scale back. Creative Engineering’s Audio Blaster serial were a
de facto
standard for sound cards in desktop PCs during the 1990s until the early 2000s, when they were reduced to a niche product, as OEM desktop PCs came with sound boards integrated directly onto the motherboard.



While desktops take long been the most common configuration for PCs,[6]
by the mid-2000s the growth shifted from desktops to laptops.[seven]
Notably, while desktops were mainly produced in the United states, laptops had long been produced by contract manufacturers based in Asia, such as Foxconn. This shift led to the closure of the many desktop assembly plants in the U.s.a. by 2010. Another trend around this time was the increasing proportion of cheap base of operations-configuration desktops being sold, hurting PC manufacturers such as Dell whose build-to-order customization of desktops relied on upselling added features to buyers.[8]

Battery-powered portable computers had just a two% worldwide market share in 1986.[ix]
Yet, laptops have become increasingly popular, both for business organization and personal use.[10]
Around 109 meg notebook PCs shipped worldwide in 2007, a growth of 33% compared to 2006.[11]
In 2008, it was estimated that 145.9 million notebooks were sold and that the number would grow in 2009 to million.[12]
The third quarter of 2008 was the first time when worldwide notebook PC shipments exceeded desktops, with 38.6 million units versus 38.5 million units.[10]

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The sales breakdown of the Apple Macintosh has seen sales of desktop Macs staying mostly constant while existence surpassed by that of Mac notebooks whose sales rate has grown considerably; seven out of ten Macs sold were laptops in 2009, a ratio projected to rise to three out of iv by 2010. The change in sales of form factors is due to the desktop iMac moving from affordable G3 to upscale G4 model and subsequent releases are considered premium all-in-ones. By dissimilarity, the MSRP of the MacBook laptop lines have dropped through successive generations such that the MacBook Air and MacBook Pro constitute the lowest price of entry to a Mac, with the exception of the even more inexpensive Mac Mini (admitting without a monitor and keyboard), and the MacBooks are the acme-selling form factors of the Macintosh platform today.[16]

The decades of development mean that most people already own desktop computers that meet their needs and accept no need of buying a new ane merely to continue stride with advancing engineering science. Notably, the successive release of new versions of Windows (Windows 95, 98, XP, Vista, 7, 8, 10 and so on) had been drivers for the replacement of PCs in the 1990s, only this slowed in the 2000s due to the poor reception of Windows Vista over Windows XP. Recently, some analysts have suggested that Windows 8 has actually hurt sales of PCs in 2012, as businesses accept decided to stick with Windows 7 rather than upgrade.[17]
Some suggested that Microsoft has acknowledged “implicitly ringing the desktop PC death knell” equally Windows eight offers fiddling upgrade in desktop PC functionality over Windows vii; instead, Windows viii’s innovations are mostly on the mobile side.[18]

The mail service-PC trend has seen a decline in the sales of desktop and laptop PCs.[17]
The reject has been attributed to increased power and applications of alternative computing devices, namely smartphones and tablet computers.[20]
Although most people exclusively use their smartphones and tablets for more basic tasks such as social media and casual gaming, these devices have in many instances replaced a second or third PC in the household that would have performed these tasks, though most families notwithstanding retain a powerful PC for serious work.[21]

Among PC form factors, desktops remain a staple in the enterprise market just have lost popularity amidst habitation buyers. PC makers and electronics retailers have responded by investing their engineering and marketing resource towards laptops (initially netbooks in the late 2000s, and and so the higher-functioning Ultrabooks from 2011 onwards), which manufacturers believe have more potential to revive the PC market[6]
than desktops.

In April 2017, StatCounter declared a “Milestone in engineering history and end of an era” with the Android operating arrangement more popular than Windows (the operating system that made desktops dominant over mainframe computers).[22]
Windows is still nearly popular on desktops (and laptops), while smartphones (and tablets) use Android, iOS or Windows 10 Mobile.



Although for casual utilize traditional desktops and laptops have seen a turn down in sales, in 2018, global PC sales experienced a resurgence, driven past the business marketplace.[23]
Desktops remain a solid fixture in the commercial and educational sectors.[25]
In add-on, gaming desktops have seen a global revenue increase of 54% annually.[26]
For gaming, the global marketplace of gaming desktops, laptops, and monitors is expected to abound to 61.1 one thousand thousand shipments by the end of 2023, up from 42.ane million, with desktops growing from fifteen.1 million shipments to 19 meg.[27]
PC gaming as a whole now accounts for 28% of the total gaming market equally of 2017.[28]
This is partially due to the increasing affordability of desktop PCs.[29]



By size


HP HP9000 workstation with sub-compact, universal desktop\desktower case



Total-sized desktops are characterized by separate display and processing components. These components are connected to each other by cables or wireless connections. They oftentimes come in a belfry form cistron. These computers are easy to customize and upgrade per user requirements, e.g. past expansion card.

Early extended-size (significantly larger that mainstream ATX example) tower computers sometimes were labeled as “deskside computers”,[30]
but currently this naming being quite rare.[32]



Compact desktop tin be used similar to All-in-i calculator

Meaty desktops are reduced in concrete proportions compared to full-sized desktops. They are typically modest-sized, inexpensive, depression-power computers designed for basic tasks such as web browsing, accessing web-based applications, document processing, and sound/video playback.[33]
Hardware specifications and processing power are commonly reduced[34]
and hence brand them less appropriate for running circuitous or resource-intensive applications. A nettop is a notable example of a compact desktop. A laptop without a screen can functionally be used as a meaty desktop, sometimes called a “slabtop”.[35]



(AIO) desktop computer integrates the system’southward internal components into the same case as the display, thus occupying a smaller footprint (with fewer cables) than desktops that incorporate a tower.[36]
The All-in-ane systems are rarely labeled as desktop computers.

This form factor was popular during the early on 1980s for personal computers intended for professional person use such as the Kaypro 2, Osborne 1, TRS-lxxx Model Two, and Compaq Portable. Many manufacturers of home computers like Commodore and Atari included the estimator’s motherboard into the same enclosure every bit the keyboard; these systems were most often connected to a television fix for display. Apple has manufactured several popular examples of all-in-one computers, such as the original Macintosh of the mid-1980s and the iMac of the belatedly 1990s and 2000s. By the mid 2000s, many all-in-1 designs have used flat console displays, and later models take incorporated touchscreen displays, allowing them to be used similarly to a mobile tablet.[36]

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Some all-in-i desktops, such equally the iMac G4, have used laptop components in order to reduce the size of the system case.[37]
And like virtually laptops, some all-in-one desktop computers are characterized by an disability to customize or upgrade internal components, every bit the systems’ cases do non provide convenient access to upgradable components, and faults in certain aspects of the hardware may require the entire computer to exist replaced, regardless of the health of its remaining components.[38]
There have been exceptions to this; the monitor portion of HP’s Z1 workstation can be angled apartment, and opened like a vehicle hood for access to internal hardware.[39]

By usage


Gaming estimator


Gaming computers are desktop computers with high operation CPU, GPU, and RAM optimized for playing video games at high resolution and frame rates. Gaming computer peripheries unremarkably include mechanical keyboards for faster response time,[xl]
and a gaming computer mouse which can rails higher dots per inch movement.[41]

Dwelling house theater


These desktops are connected to dwelling entertainment systems and typically used for amusement purpose. They come up with loftier definition brandish, video graphics, environment sound and Tv tuner systems to complement typical PC features.

Thin client / Cyberspace appliance


Over time some traditional desktop computers accept been replaced with thin clients utilizing off-site computing solutions like the deject.[42]
As more services and applications are served over the internet from off-site servers, local computing needs decrease, this drives desktop computers to be smaller, cheaper, and need less powerful hardware. More applications and in some cases unabridged virtual desktops are moved off-site and the desktop computer runs just an operating arrangement or a shell application while the actual content is served from a server. Sparse client computers may do near all of their computing on a virtual auto in another site. Internal, hosted virtual desktops can offer users a completely consistent experience from anywhere.[43]



HP Integrity server with rack-mountable and desktop variants

HP9000 workstation, based on an Integrity desktop server

Workstations are advanced course of personal computers designed for a user and more than powerful than a regular PC simply less powerful than a server in regular computing. They are capable of loftier-resolution and three-dimensional interfaces, and typically used to perform scientific and engineering work.[44]
Like server computers, they are oft connected with other workstations.[45]
The principal class-cistron for this grade is a Tower case, but about vendors produce a meaty or all-in-ane low-stop workstations. Most of tower workstations can be converted to a rack-mount version.

Desktop server


Oriented for small business course of servers; typically entry-level server machines, with similar to workstation/gaming PC computing powers and with some mainstream servers features, merely with only basic graphic abilities; and some desktop servers tin exist converted to workstations.

Not-mutual types


Quantum technology


On January 29, 2021 Shenzhen SpinQ Technology appear that they volition release the starting time-always desktop breakthrough calculator. this will be a miniaturized version of their previous quantum calculator based on the same technology (nuclear magnetic resonance) and will be 2 qubit device. Applications will by and large exist educational for high school and higher students. the visitor claims SpinQ volition be released to the public by the fourth quarter of 2021.[46]

Comparing with laptops


Desktops accept an reward over laptops in that the spare parts and extensions tend to be standardized, resulting in lower prices and greater availability. For example, the size and mounting of the motherboard are standardized into ATX, microATX, BTX or other form factors. Desktops have several standardized expansion slots, similar conventional PCI or PCI Express, while laptops tend to accept only ane mini-PCI slot and one PC Card slot (or ExpressCard slot). Procedures for assembly and disassembly of desktops tend to exist simple and standardized as well. This tends not to be the case for laptops, though adding or replacing some parts, similar the optical bulldoze, hard deejay, or calculation an extra memory module is often quite simple. This means that a desktop computer configuration, ordinarily a belfry case, can exist customized and upgraded to a greater extent than laptops. This customization has kept belfry cases pop amidst gamers and enthusiasts.

Some other advantage of the desktop is that (apart from ecology concerns) ability consumption is not as critical as in laptop computers because the desktop is exclusively powered from the wall socket. Desktop computers also provide more space for cooling fans and vents to misemploy estrus, allowing enthusiasts to overclock with less risk. The 2 large microprocessor manufacturers, Intel and AMD, have developed special CPUs for mobile computers (i.e. laptops) that consume less ability and lower oestrus, only with lower functioning levels.

Laptop computers, conversely, offering portability that desktop systems (including minor form cistron and all-in-one desktops) can not due to their compact size and clamshell design. The laptop’s all-in-one blueprint provides a congenital-in keyboard and a pointing device (such as a touchpad) for its user and can describe on power supplied by a rechargeable bombardment. Laptops likewise commonly integrate wireless technologies like WiFi, Bluetooth, and 3G, giving them a broader range of options for connecting to the net, though this tendency is changing equally newer desktop computers come integrated with one or more of these technologies.

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A desktop computer needs a UPS to handle electrical disturbances like short interruptions, blackouts, and spikes; achieving an on-battery time of more than 20–30 minutes for a desktop PC requires a large and expensive UPS.[49]
A laptop with a sufficiently charged battery can continue to be used for hours in example of a power outage and is not affected by short power interruptions and blackouts.

A desktop computer often has the advantage over a comparable laptop in computational capacity. Overclocking is ofttimes more viable on a desktop than on a laptop; similarly, hardware add together-ons such as discrete graphics co-processors may be possible to install only in a desktop.[51]

See also


  • Desktop replacement figurer
  • Gaming reckoner
  • Home reckoner
  • Legacy ports
  • Operating system
  • Single-board computer
  • Software
  • x86 and x86-64, the most mutual compages in desktop computers



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External links


  • Reckoner Tour – of major components of a desktop computers at HowStuffWorks

Desktop is a Computer Term That Refers to